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Download Stable isotope Relative atomic mass Mole fraction Os 183.952 489
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† Stable Relative Mole isotope atomic mass fraction 184 Os† 183.952 489 0.0002 186 † Os 185.953 84 0.0159 187 Os 186.955 75 0.0196 188 Os 187.955 84 0.1324 189 Os 188.958 14 0.1615 190 Os 189.958 44 0.2626 192 191.961 48 0.4078 Os Radioactive isotope having a relatively long half-life and a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition that contributes significantly and reproducibly to the determination of the standard atomic weight of the element in normal materials. The half-lives of 184Os and 186 Os are 1.1 × 1013 years and 2 × 1015 years, respectively. Osmium isotopes in Earth/planetary science The isotope-amount ratio n(187Os)/n(186Os) in rocks can be transferred to fluids, such as magmas and groundwaters (Figure 4.76.1). Variations in the inherited n(187 Os)/n(186 Os) ratios can provide a useful tracer for fluid sources and migration paths [299, 511, 524]. Meteorites and meteorite dust impacting the Earth have different osmium isotopic compositions than terrestrial rocks and sediments. As a result, n(187Os)/n(186Os)-ratio studies provide evidence of continuing extraterrestrial additions to the Earth over geologic time, as well as providing a method for prospecting in the sedimentary record for large meteorite impact events that may have affected life on Earth [299, 525]. Fig. 1: The isotope-amount ratio n(187Os)/n(186Os) in rocks can be transferred to fluids, such as magmas. (Image Source: U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Kilauea) . Osmium isotopes in geochronology Some 187Os is radiogenic as a result of being formed by beta decay of radioactive 187Re, which has a half-life of 4.16 × 1010 years. Variations in the isotope-amount ratio n( 187Os)/n(186Os) and mole ratio n(187 Re)/n(186Os) are used for geochronology; for example, variations in these ratios have been used to determine the ages of the Earth, moon, and meteorites [299, 511, 524, 525]. Kirk et al.  measured rhenium-osmium isotopic abundances in gold and pyrites from conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa (Figure 2), which have produced over 48,000 metric tons of gold and have accounted for 40 percent of the world’s total historic production . The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield an age of ~3.0 × 109 years. Kirk et al. find that this age is much older than that of conglomerate, and they conclude that the gold is detrital (material wearing away by weathering or erosion) and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. Fig. 2: Cross plot of n(187Os)/n(188Os) isotope-amount ratio and n(187Re)/n(188Os) mole ratio of gold and pyrite from South Africa’s Witwatersrand Supergoup gold deposits (modified from ). The turquoise diamonds are gold-bearing samples from Vaal Reef, and they form an isochron with an age of ~3.0 × 109 years. The purple filled circles are euhedral (crystals having a flat surface and sharp angles) pyrites from the Venterdorp Contact Reef, and they have a much younger age of 672 ± 510 million years. Osmium isotopes used as a source of radioactive isotope(s) Os can be used for the production of the medical radioisotope 195mPt via the 192Os (α, n) 195mPt reaction. 192 Glossary atomic number (Z) – The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. beta decay (β-decay) – radioactive decay process resulting in emission of a beta particle of either positive or negative charge (an electron or positron). [return] electron – elementary particle of matter with a negative electric charge and a rest mass of about 9.109 × 10–31 kg. element (chemical element) – a species of atoms; all atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus. A pure chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus . [return] gamma rays (gamma radiation) – a stream of high-energy electromagnetic radiation given off by an atomic nucleus undergoing radioactive decay. The energies of gamma rays are higher than those of X-rays; thus, gamma rays have greater penetrating power. half-life (radioactive) – the time interval that it takes for the total number of atoms of any radioactive isotope to decay and leave only one-half of the original number of atoms. [return] isochron – a line indicating age of formation of a suite of rock or mineral samples on a cross plot of amount ratios of isotopes of the same element and mole ratios of isotopes of different elements (one of which is radioactive and decays to an isotope of the other element). The time formed can indicate time since metamorphism, crystallization, shock events, differentiation of precursor melts, etc. For examples, see neodymium Figure 1, samarium Figure 1, rhenium Figure 1, and osmium Figure 2. [return] isotope-amount ratio (r) – amount (symbol n) of an isotope divided by the amount of another isotope of the chemical element in the same system . [return] isotope – one of two or more species of atoms of a given element (having the same number of protons in the nucleus) with different atomic masses (different number of neutrons in the nucleus). The atom can either be a stable isotope or a radioactive isotope. isotopic composition – number and abundance of the isotopes of a chemical element that are naturally occurring . [return] meteorite – a meteoroid that has survived atmospheric passage and fallen to the Earth’s surface in one or more recoverable fragments. See also chondrites . [return] neutron – an elementary particle with no net charge and a rest mass of about 1.675 × 10–27 kg, slightly more than that of the proton. All atoms contain neutrons in their nucleus except for protium (1H). normal material – a reasonably possible source for an element or its compounds in commerce, for industry or science; the material is not itself studied for some extraordinary anomaly and its mole fractions (isotopic abundances) have not been modified significantly in a geologically brief period . [return] positron – the antimatter counterpart of the electron, with a mass identical to that of the electron and an equal but opposite (positive) charge. proton – an elementary particle having a rest mass of about 1.673 × 10–27 kg, slightly less than that of a neutron, and a positive electric charge equal and opposite to that of the electron. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the atomic number. radioactive decay – the process by which unstable (or radioactive) isotopes lose energy by emitting alpha particles (helium nuclei), beta particles (positive or negative electrons), gamma radiation, neutrons or protons to reach a final stable energy state. radioisotope (radioactive isotope) – an atom for which radioactive decay has been experimentally measured (also see half-life). [return] radiogenic – produced by the decay of a radioactive isotope, but which itself may or may not be radioactive. [return] stable isotope – an atom for which no radioactive decay has ever been experimentally measured. standard atomic weight – an evaluated quantity assigned by the IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) to encompass the range of possible atomic weights of a chemical element that might be encountered in all samples of normal terrestrial materials. It is comprised of either an interval (currently for 12 elements) or a value and an uncertainty (a standard Atomic-weight uncertainty), and currently there are 72. A standard atomic weight is determined from an evaluation of peer-reviewed scientific publications. [return] tracer - substance used for tracking purposes. [return] X-rays – electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers— shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. References 4. C. Kendall, and Coplen, T.B. Hydrological Process. 15, 1363 (2011). 10.1002/hyp.217 168. U. S. G. S. H. V. O. (HVO). Kilauea- 3 May 2003, Saturday morning at the lava. U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). 2014 Feb. 26. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/kilauea/update/archive/2003/May/main.html 299. G. Faure. Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd Edition Wiley (1986). 511. A. Schersten. Re-Os, Pt-Os and Hf-W isotopes and tracing the core in mantle melts. MantlePlumes.org. 2014 Feb. 25. http://www.mantleplumes.org/Os-W.html 524. A. D. Brandon, and Walker, R.J. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 3-4 (232), 211 (2005). 525. F. S. Paquay, Ravizza, G.E., Dalai, T.K., and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B. Science. 320 (5873), 214 (2008). 526. J. R. J. Kirk, J. Chesley, J. Walshe, and G. England. Science. 297, 1856 (2002). 527. a. W. E. L. M. H. E. Frimmel. Society of Economic Geologists Special Publication. 9, 17 (2002). 703. I. U. o. P. a. A. Chemistry. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book"). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford (1997). 705. American Geological Institute Glossary of Geology. American Geosciences Institute, Alexandria, Virginia (2011). 706. Coplen. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 25 (2011).