QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and

... hadrons with the quark model, concomitant with the observation of partons in deep-inelastic electron scattering, sparked the emergence of QCD. We thus begin in Sect. 3 with this physics, discussing not only the current status of the parton distribution functions, but also delving into many aspects o ...

... hadrons with the quark model, concomitant with the observation of partons in deep-inelastic electron scattering, sparked the emergence of QCD. We thus begin in Sect. 3 with this physics, discussing not only the current status of the parton distribution functions, but also delving into many aspects o ...

Impaginazione OK

... gained immortal fame with the Fermi-Dirac statistics; with the behaviour of neutrons in matter; with the discovery of a new type of field and forces, the weak interactions. In the United States, between 1938 and 1954, he built the first atomic pile (1942) and contributed to the study of nuclear ener ...

... gained immortal fame with the Fermi-Dirac statistics; with the behaviour of neutrons in matter; with the discovery of a new type of field and forces, the weak interactions. In the United States, between 1938 and 1954, he built the first atomic pile (1942) and contributed to the study of nuclear ener ...

from its mathematical description to its experimental

... applied to a lot of scenarios such as atomic emission, particle scattering, and radiation-matter interaction [ER85, FLS65]. The first strong criticism to quantum theory came with the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen’s (EPR) paper “Can quantum-mechanical description of the physical reality be considered ...

... applied to a lot of scenarios such as atomic emission, particle scattering, and radiation-matter interaction [ER85, FLS65]. The first strong criticism to quantum theory came with the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen’s (EPR) paper “Can quantum-mechanical description of the physical reality be considered ...

Spin dynamics and spatially resolved spin transport phenomena in

... semiconductor, GaAs is ideal for optical orientation and detection. In bulk GaAs, spin lifetimes exceeding 100 ns have been found at low temperatures [Dzh02; Kik98] and tens of ps at room temperature [Kim01; Hoh06; Kik98]. Spin diffusion lengths of a few µm have been observed [Häg98; Fur07; Cio09], ...

... semiconductor, GaAs is ideal for optical orientation and detection. In bulk GaAs, spin lifetimes exceeding 100 ns have been found at low temperatures [Dzh02; Kik98] and tens of ps at room temperature [Kim01; Hoh06; Kik98]. Spin diffusion lengths of a few µm have been observed [Häg98; Fur07; Cio09], ...

Rare $ B $ Decays as Tests of the Standard Model

... is controlled by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix [1]. The CKM matrix is almost flavour diagonal with off-diagonal elements suppressed by powers of λ ' 0.22. Flavour-changing-neutral-current (FCNC) processes that take a down (d, s, b) or up (u, c, t) type quark and transform i ...

... is controlled by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix [1]. The CKM matrix is almost flavour diagonal with off-diagonal elements suppressed by powers of λ ' 0.22. Flavour-changing-neutral-current (FCNC) processes that take a down (d, s, b) or up (u, c, t) type quark and transform i ...

Particle Accelerator Physics

... volume beam dynamics is formulated within the realm of Hamiltonian dynamics leading to the description of multiparticle beam dynamics with the Vlasov equation and including statistical processes with the Fokker Planck equation. Higher order perturbations and aberrations are discussed in detail inclu ...

... volume beam dynamics is formulated within the realm of Hamiltonian dynamics leading to the description of multiparticle beam dynamics with the Vlasov equation and including statistical processes with the Fokker Planck equation. Higher order perturbations and aberrations are discussed in detail inclu ...

PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION ENERGY

... collisionless damping rates of RF heating and current drive), which I then derived using a simple, intuitive single-particle analysis. The point is that the first time through, the best way to develop an overall understanding of all the issues involved, with particular emphasis on self-consistent in ...

... collisionless damping rates of RF heating and current drive), which I then derived using a simple, intuitive single-particle analysis. The point is that the first time through, the best way to develop an overall understanding of all the issues involved, with particular emphasis on self-consistent in ...

Particle Detectors in Curved Space Quantum Field Theory

... The study of quantum fields in curved space-time has always been classified as a topic of “theoretical physics”. There is good reason for this. Almost all (experimentally) observable effects require such extreme physical conditions that there is little prospect, if any, of being able to set up a “la ...

... The study of quantum fields in curved space-time has always been classified as a topic of “theoretical physics”. There is good reason for this. Almost all (experimentally) observable effects require such extreme physical conditions that there is little prospect, if any, of being able to set up a “la ...

Vector Mechanics for Engineers ( Dynamics )

... study of three-dimensional motion. The fact that mechanics is essentially a deductive science based on a few fundamental principles has been stressed. Derivations have been presented in their logical sequence and with all the rigor warranted at this level. However, the learning process being largely ...

... study of three-dimensional motion. The fact that mechanics is essentially a deductive science based on a few fundamental principles has been stressed. Derivations have been presented in their logical sequence and with all the rigor warranted at this level. However, the learning process being largely ...

Magic Manual

... available in MAGIC version 3.2.0, will enable users to select damping of high-frequency modes thus concentrating on plasma fundamental frequencies of interest. This additional user tool can prevent plasma instabilities resulting from ionization growth beyond the time step limit for explicit particle ...

... available in MAGIC version 3.2.0, will enable users to select damping of high-frequency modes thus concentrating on plasma fundamental frequencies of interest. This additional user tool can prevent plasma instabilities resulting from ionization growth beyond the time step limit for explicit particle ...

9. QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS 9. Quantum chromodynamics 1

... approximate 4-loop solutions for αs (µ2R ), and that a value for Λ only defines αs (µ2R ) once one knows which particular approximation is being used. An alternative to the use of formulas such as Eq. (9.5) is to solve the RGE exactly, numerically (including the discontinuities, Eq. (9.4), at flavor ...

... approximate 4-loop solutions for αs (µ2R ), and that a value for Λ only defines αs (µ2R ) once one knows which particular approximation is being used. An alternative to the use of formulas such as Eq. (9.5) is to solve the RGE exactly, numerically (including the discontinuities, Eq. (9.4), at flavor ...

Geant Manual

... In the CERN Program Library maintenance scheme, three versions of any product are present at the same time on the central systems, in the OLD, PRO and NEW areas with those same names. This scheme does not ...

... In the CERN Program Library maintenance scheme, three versions of any product are present at the same time on the central systems, in the OLD, PRO and NEW areas with those same names. This scheme does not ...

Non-collinear Magnetoelectronics Abstract

... model [58]. The total current can then be interpreted as two parallel spin-up and spin-down electron currents, which are in turn limited by resistors in series that represent interfaces and bulk scattering. However, the discontinuities in the electronic structure at interfaces occur on an atomic sca ...

... model [58]. The total current can then be interpreted as two parallel spin-up and spin-down electron currents, which are in turn limited by resistors in series that represent interfaces and bulk scattering. However, the discontinuities in the electronic structure at interfaces occur on an atomic sca ...

# Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles. Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are ""matter particles"" and ""antimatter particles"", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs boson), which generally are ""force particles"" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle.Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning ""indivisible"" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. As the 1930s opened, the electron and the proton had been observed, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation. At that time, the recent advent of quantum mechanics was radically altering the conception of particles, as a single particle could seemingly span a field as would a wave, a paradox still eluding satisfactory explanation.Via quantum theory, protons and neutrons were found to contain quarks—up quarks and down quarks—now considered elementary particles. And within a molecule, the electron's three degrees of freedom (charge, spin, orbital) can separate via wavefunction into three quasiparticles (holon, spinon, orbiton). Yet a free electron—which, not orbiting an atomic nucleus, lacks orbital motion—appears unsplittable and remains regarded as an elementary particle.Around 1980, an elementary particle's status as indeed elementary—an ultimate constituent of substance—was mostly discarded for a more practical outlook, embodied in particle physics' Standard Model, science's most experimentally successful theory. Many elaborations upon and theories beyond the Standard Model, including the extremely popular supersymmetry, double the number of elementary particles by hypothesizing that each known particle associates with a ""shadow"" partner far more massive, although all such superpartners remain undiscovered. Meanwhile, an elementary boson mediating gravitation—the graviton—remains hypothetical.