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Islam in History: An Overview 632-661 The Rashidun “Rightly Guided” Caliphate Abu Bakr; Umar; Uthman; Ali, who is murdered 638 Conquest of Jerusalem 661-750 The Umayyads Arab dynasty ruling from Damascus 680 Martyrdom of Husayn (Ali’s son) in Karbala, Iraq, and beginning of the Shi’a sect. 756-1492 Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) In 711 a rival branch of the Umayyad caliphate was established in Spain, and Spain remained in Muslim hands until it was taken again by Christians in the 13th century. Jews and Christians were prominent in culture and government under Islamic rule. Literature, philosophy, architecture, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy and medicine all flourished, stimulated by contact with Christian, Jewish and earlier Greek cultural sources. Translations of Greek works into Arabic were begun and continued through the 9th century. 750-1258 The Abbasids An Arab caliphate established in Baghdad, during which the classical schools of Islamic law and theology flourish. Cultural achievements remained high. Al-Kindi (c. 800-873), Al-Farabi (870-950), Ibn Sina / Avicenna (980-1037), Al-Gazali (1058-1111), Ibn Rushd / Averroes (1126-1198). Maimonides (1135-1204), Jewish philosopher / theologian, lived in Cairo and served as court physician to the Muslim ruler Saladin. 1000-1492 Christian reconquest of Muslim controlled territories in Spain, Sicily, and Italy. 1095-1453 Crusades 1187 Saladin reconquers Jerusalem. 1281-1924 Ottoman (Turks, Saracens) Empire Sunni Islamic Empire in Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire after WW I (1918), many of the boundaries of present day nation states in the Middle East were determined by the British and French. 1526-1857 Mughal Empire in India and South Asia (Akbar, d. 1605, introduces a degree of religious toleration; from India Muslim (Sufi) missionaries go to Malaysia, Indonesia.) 1501-1732 Safavid Empire (Persian, Iran) (“Twelvers” Shi’a; the “hidden” imam) 1703-87 Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and founds what becomes the Saudi Arabia Kingdom; the roots of later Wahhabiya (a radical, puritanical Islamic movement) emerge. 1924 The califate is abolished by a secular Turkish regime. 1947 Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. 1979 The Iranian Revolution ushers in a new era of political Islam and radical Islamism.