Download Islam in History: An Overview

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Usul Fiqh in Ja'fari school wikipedia, lookup

Islam and violence wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of Islamism wikipedia, lookup

Islamofascism wikipedia, lookup

Islamism wikipedia, lookup

Islamic democracy wikipedia, lookup

Islam and war wikipedia, lookup

Caliphate wikipedia, lookup

Islamic ethics wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Romania wikipedia, lookup

Islam and secularism wikipedia, lookup

Dhimmi wikipedia, lookup

Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe wikipedia, lookup

Muslim world wikipedia, lookup

Islamic extremism in the 20th-century Egypt wikipedia, lookup

Fiqh wikipedia, lookup

Spread of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islamic missionary activity wikipedia, lookup

Censorship in Islamic societies wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Indonesia wikipedia, lookup

Al-Andalus wikipedia, lookup

Origin of Shia Islam wikipedia, lookup

History of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Political aspects of Islam wikipedia, lookup

Schools of Islamic theology wikipedia, lookup

Islamic socialism wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Bangladesh wikipedia, lookup

Islam and other religions wikipedia, lookup

Islamic schools and branches wikipedia, lookup

Al-Nahda wikipedia, lookup

Reception of Islam in Early Modern Europe wikipedia, lookup

Islamic Golden Age wikipedia, lookup

Islam and modernity wikipedia, lookup

Islamic culture wikipedia, lookup

Islam in History: An Overview
The Rashidun “Rightly Guided” Caliphate
Abu Bakr; Umar; Uthman; Ali, who is murdered
Conquest of Jerusalem
The Umayyads
Arab dynasty ruling from Damascus
Martyrdom of Husayn (Ali’s son) in Karbala, Iraq, and beginning of the Shi’a sect.
Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain)
In 711 a rival branch of the Umayyad caliphate was established in Spain, and Spain
remained in Muslim hands until it was taken again by Christians in the 13th century. Jews
and Christians were prominent in culture and government under Islamic rule. Literature,
philosophy, architecture, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy and medicine all flourished,
stimulated by contact with Christian, Jewish and earlier Greek cultural sources.
Translations of Greek works into Arabic were begun and continued through the 9th
The Abbasids
An Arab caliphate established in Baghdad, during which the classical schools of Islamic
law and theology flourish. Cultural achievements remained high.
Al-Kindi (c. 800-873), Al-Farabi (870-950), Ibn Sina / Avicenna (980-1037),
Al-Gazali (1058-1111), Ibn Rushd / Averroes (1126-1198).
Maimonides (1135-1204), Jewish philosopher / theologian, lived in Cairo and served as
court physician to the Muslim ruler Saladin.
Christian reconquest of Muslim controlled territories in Spain, Sicily, and Italy.
Saladin reconquers Jerusalem.
Ottoman (Turks, Saracens) Empire
Sunni Islamic Empire in Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe. With
the demise of the Ottoman Empire after WW I (1918), many of the boundaries of present
day nation states in the Middle East were determined by the British and French.
Mughal Empire in India and South Asia
(Akbar, d. 1605, introduces a degree of religious toleration; from India Muslim (Sufi)
missionaries go to Malaysia, Indonesia.)
Safavid Empire (Persian, Iran)
(“Twelvers” Shi’a; the “hidden” imam)
Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and founds what becomes the Saudi Arabia
Kingdom; the roots of later Wahhabiya (a radical, puritanical Islamic movement) emerge.
The califate is abolished by a secular Turkish regime.
Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation.
The Iranian Revolution ushers in a new era of political Islam and radical Islamism.