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Study guide-Byzantine and Islamic Empires
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of the Roman Empire-capital at Constantinople
o Lasted about 1000 years after the fall of Rome
Preserved the culture and learning of the Greeks and Romans
Emperor Justinian’s greatest achievement was his Code of laws
Great Schism 1054- split of Christianity between Roman Catholic Church and
Eastern Orthodox Church
o Disagreement of Church authority
o Disagreement over the worship of icons
o Greek became language of Orthodox Church
Influenced Russia through trade– Religion (Orthodox Church) and use of Cyrillic
Wealth came from trade with East
Islamic Empire
Islam is the third monotheistic religion to start in the Middle East
Five Pillars are duties of Muslims and provides a guide to good, moral behavior
o Confession of faith
o Prayer-5 x daily facing Mecca
o Alms- charity to poor
o Fasting-during Ramadan
o Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca once during person’s lifetime
The Qur’an is the Holy book of the Muslims
Hegira [hijra] is the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622
First 4 Caliphs known as “Rightly Guided” because they followed the example set
by Muhammad
Jews and Christians were tolerated and called “people of the book”
Shar’ia is the Islamic law with guides daily life
Umayyad Caliphate moved capital to Damascus
Abbasid Caliphate moved capital to Baghdad
Islam split into 2 sects
o Sunni- believe that leader should be person who shows the best example
of proper Muslim living [Sunna]; majority of Muslims
o Shi’a [Shi’ite]- believe that leader should be a descendant of Muhammad
Golden Age of Islam began during rule of Abbasid Caliphate
o Achievements in science, medicine, and mathematics
o Literary achievements
Stories of 1001 Nights well known
o Preserved learning of Greeks and Romans
o Diversity in empire helped cultural diffusion to take place
o Western Europe will learn about Islamic achievements when trade begins
between areas as a result of the Crusades