What is a caliphate?
... Deriving from Arabic word khalifa
“succession”, caliphate describes
Islamic state ruled by single political
and religious leader, or caliph
Caliphs are regarded by their
followers as successors to Prophet
Muhammad and sovereign over
First caliphate led by four
immediate successors to Muh ...
The Rise of Islam 600-1200 - Sonoma Valley High School
... • Period of Islamic Conquests 634-711
– Religious fanaticism, weakness of enemies, talent of
Muslim leaders and camel cavalry!
• Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates 661-850
– Arab Empire (not a Muslim Empire), ruled from
– Umayyad Overthrown 750 w/ help of Shi’ites.
– Abbasid Caliphate 750- ...
The Spread of Islam
... treaty: a written agreement between
countries or peoples (ex. People
accepted Muslim rule in return for certain
The Rise of Islam 600-1200 - Sonoma Valley High School
... caravan trade
The Last Prophet
– In 610CE received revelations
(1 God = Allah)
– Submission = Salvation
– 622 fled to Medina / Formed a
single community of believers
The Succession of the Caliph
– Abu Bakr (Father-in-law)
• Goals = Standardization: 5
Pillars & Creation of an
– C ...
... “words of one god, Allah”
Abu Bakr: took over Muhammad’s place as
caliph→ re- established Muslim authority over
Arabs and oversaw compilation of Quran in book
A’isha: Muhammad’s wife; said what Muslims fear
most about women: sexuality and meddling in
Batu: Mongol ruler who converted to ...
Early Islam - Al-Ashraf Primary School
... major Islamic caliphates established after the death
of Muhammad. This caliphate was entered on the
Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca.
During Mu’awiya’s reign (661–80), the seat of
Islamic power was transferred from the Arabian
Peninsula to Syria.
Abu sufyan came from the Quraysh tribe.
Islam in History: An Overview
... An Arab caliphate established in Baghdad, during which the classical schools of Islamic
law and theology flourish. Cultural achievements remained high.
Al-Kindi (c. 800-873), Al-Farabi (870-950), Ibn Sina / Avicenna (980-1037),
Al-Gazali (1058-1111), Ibn Rushd / Averroes (1126-1198).
Maimonides (113 ...
The Rise of Spread of Islam
... Caliphate = dynasty of Islamic caliphs
Rashidun or Rightly Guided Caliphs (632-661)
Abu Bakr; Umar; Uthman; Ali
Umayyads (661-750, centered in Damascus)
Abbasids (750-1258, centered in Baghdad)
Córdobas (756-1031, Iberia)
Fatimids (909-1171, North Africa, Shi’a)
Almohads (1145-1269, North Africa, Ib ...
The Rise of Islam
... was the first of the four Arab
Controlled by the first four
successors of Muhammad, known
as the "Rightly Guided" caliphs.
Founded after Muhammad's death
in 632, the empire lasted until Ali's
death in 661.
Dome of the rock Begun
Byzantine Empire Islamic Empire
... o Fasting-during Ramadan
o Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca once during person’s lifetime
The Qur’an is the Holy book of the Muslims
Hegira [hijra] is the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622
First 4 Caliphs known as “Rightly Guided” because they followed the example set
Jews and C ...
ABC Book of Islam
... P - Prophet
In religion, a prophet is a person who has
encountered some divine being, typically
Role and History of the Caliphate
... by a council of electors (Majlis), but was soon perceived by some to be ruling as a "king" rather than
an elected leader. Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali then took control but
was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt, and later by some of his own
Expansion of Islam Presentation
... By the 10th century CE, Dar-Al-Islam (literally: The House of Islam, or The Muslim
World) is a collection of dynasties led by converts like the Turks and Persians.
Converts throughout the Indian Ocean trade and Silk Road are not Arabs – Even
three of the four Mongol ordus and Chinese and SE Asians ...
World History 9 Chapter 10, Section 2 – “Islam Expands
... Caliphate formed by Shi’a who claimed descent from Fatima, Muhammad’s daughter
Began in North Africa and spread across Red Sea to western Arabia and Syria
15. What four things united the various Muslim groups to the Abbasid caliphate?
Lecture Notes_Islam_Key Concepts
... Hasan’s brother Husayn revolted and Yazid had him and his
Husayn’s martyrdom transformed Shi’ism from a political
movement into a religious sect
Ali and his descendants are the rightful Imams
Caliph is a secular office
Caliphs are Imams
Community should sele ...
Study Guide #28 The Expansion of Islam
... The Caliphate. Muhammad died in 632, setting off a crisis in the
Islamic world. No one knew who would take Muhammad‟s place as
leader. In addition, some of the desert tribes began to abandon Islam.
The search for a new leader caused conflicts, but eventually a group
chose Abu Bakr, Muhammad‟s old fr ...
Origins of agriculture to the first river
... Opened Islam to all on equal basis
Moved capital to Baghdad
Focused on creating religious law, Shari’a
Religious scholars called ulama interpreted the Qur’an and
the hadith to determine Islamic law codes.
Office of the vizier ran the government, directed by the caliph
and a state council
Greeks, Ira ...
Unit 4 - River Mill Academy
... Money paid to man for marrying woman
Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta
Muslims, Jews, Christians
States under Siege
... The weakening of the Muslim nation-state across the world, and multiple civil wars,
owes to the sudden rise of political Islam. In much of the 20th century, Muslims had
understood their religion largely as a normative system whose role was to govern an
individual’s personal life and act as a moral c ...
6-2 The Arab Empire and Its Successors
... • Conquered Italy, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Persia
• After Abu Bakr dies, again they have a problem
choosing caliph (the next 2 are assissinated)
• Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, becomes caliph, and
he is killed after 5 years.
• Islam was tolerant of Christianity and Judaism at
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (Arabic: خَليفة khalīfah About this sound pronunciation )—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community. The Rashidun caliphs, who directly succeeded Muhammad as leaders of the Muslim community, were chosen through shura, a process of community consultation that some consider an early form of Islamic democracy. During the history of Islam after the Rashidun period, many Muslim states, almost all of them hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates.The Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a Caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives (in practice, however, this devolved into a hereditary monarchic system soon after the beginning of Islam) and from Quraysh. Followers of Shia Islam, however, believe a Caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt (the ""Family of the House"", Muhammad's direct descendants).Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi's group the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant declared its governmental structure a 'caliphate' on June 29, 2014 after taking control of large swathes of territory in Syria (which for a prolonged period of time comprised over 50% of that country) and Iraq.