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Expansion of Muslim Rule
Section 3
Key Terms
• Discuss the expansion of Muslim rule
through military conquests and treaties,
emphasizing the cultural blending within
Muslim civilization and the spread and
acceptance of Islam and the Arabic
Background Knowledge
• When Muhammad died in 632, Islam was
limited to the Arabian Peninsula. Within a
one hundred years, Muslims had
conquered a vast territory.
• In this section, you will learn more about
the expansion of Muslim rule and how it
changed over time.
government rule
of a land by a
Ali (Ali Ibn Abu
Talib): Muhammad’s
cousin and fourth caliph.
Shiites believed he should
have become the first
Umayyad: This
caliphate established
Islam’s first dynasty and
led the empire to its
greatest size.
treaty: a written agreement between
countries or peoples (ex. People
accepted Muslim rule in return for certain
Abbasids: the
caliphate that
replaced the
Umayyad, moved the
capital to Baghdad,
and elected their
Abu al-Abbas:
first Abbasid ruler (the
“slaughterer”) who
was tolerant of nonMuslims in the
new capital
created by the
which became
the center of a
golden age of
art, science,
and learning.
Fatimid’s: Shiite
group that seized
control of Egypt,
took control of N.
Africa and the
world, and were
tolerant of
Christians and
Ottoman Empire:
Turkish state that
captured Constantinople,
conquered the last of the
Byzantine states, and
spread Islam to its
greatest height.
Sultan: name of a
Muslim ruler