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Transcript
UNIT 4
Day 32: Islam
Quiz 8!
1.
The ______ built their capital Tenochtitlan on a swamp and grew crops
in floating gardens.
2.
The ______ built the first city in North America called Cahokia.
3.
Quipu were strings with knots tied to keep records, used by the _____.
4.
Which leader created the 1st unified Chinese empire in the Qin Dynasty,
and used legalism to keep order in society?
5.
What had to be studied in order to pass the Han civil service exam?
6.
What is a dowry?
7.
Name one explorer allowed into the Yuan Dynasty court during Kublai
Khan’s reign.
8.
Which empire closed off China to the rest of the world in 1435?
9.
What is the name for ancient Indian writing?
10.
What three groups are the “People of the Book?”
Quiz Answers!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Aztecs
Mississippians
Incas
Shi Huangdi
Confucian Classics/Literature/Philosophy/writing
Money paid to man for marrying woman
Marco Polo, Ibn Battuta
Ming
Sanskrit
Muslims, Jews, Christians
Early Growth of Islam


Muhammad dies, next leader of Islam?
 Abu Bakr (M’s father in law)1st caliph
 Caliph=successor to Muhammad
 Arabs not as loyal as they were to
Muhammad
Once Arabs unite, conquer Byzantine and
Persian empires (neighbors)
 Capture Syria and Palestine, Damascus and
Jerusalem, Egypt
Division


Sunni
 Believed any good Muslim could lead the
community
 There can be no Prophet after Muhammad
 What defines a “good” Muslim?? Fight!
 Inspiration comes from Muhammad’s example
Shiite (Shia)
 Believed Muhammad chose son-in-law Ali to be
successor
 True successors are descendants of Ali and
Fatima
 Called Imams (divinely inspired leaders)
Compare

Sufis
 Muslim mystics, seek communion with God through meditation,
fasting, rituals; pious, miraculous power?
 Help spread Islam by traveling, preaching, examples
Sunni
Both
Shiite
Umayyad Caliphate, until 750




Rule after death of Ali, dynasty of Sunnis
 Capital at Damascus (Syria)
Battle of Tours: defeated by Franks (France)
 Rule parts of Spain but no expansion into
Europe
Success of Um Caliphate due to:
1.
Weakness of Byz and Pers. Empires
2.
Arab bold/efficient fighting methods
3.
Common faith, religion
Fair treatment of conquered people

Keep religion, pay tax or convert and gain
equality
Abbasid Dynasty, 750-1258



Leader: Abu al-Abbas (descend from M’s
uncle)
 Supported by Shiite & non-Arab Muslims
Empire based on equality of all Muslims
 Empire of caliphs reaches greatest wealth
and power
 Islam becomes more diverse,
discrimination of non-Arab Muslims ends
 Vizier: head of bureaucracy, most imp
gov’t official
Capital: Baghdad
 Minarets: slender towers of the mosques
Decline of Muslim Empire


Seljuk Turks: migrate to Middle East
 Adopt Islam, build empire
 1055, Seljuk sultan *ruler* controlled
Baghdad
 Abbasid caliph = figurehead
Mongols, 1258
 Hulagu (grandson of Ghengis) sacks
Baghdad
 Killed last Abbasid caliph
 Adopt Islam
 Late 1300’s, Mongol Leader
Tamerlane (Muslim)
Mongol Empire, 1300
Social/Economic Advances



Trade network using camels (ships of the desert)
 Sahara to W. Africa
 Silk Road
 Indian # system, banks, checks
Agriculture, irrigation projects
 Herding, farming
Muslims have social mobility
 Can improve social rank through religion,
school, military
 Slaves were household servants
Art/Literature

Muslim leaders forbid painting God or humans in religious art

Poetry, storytelling, The Thousand and One Nights

Calligraphy (art of beautiful handwriting)
Knowledge



Translated Persian, Sanskrit, Greek
into Arabic
Philosophy
Math (standardized textbook),
astronomical tables

Hospitals, studies measles, smallpox

Way to treat cataracts, diseases, etc.