* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download Ch 9 Notes Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
Document related concepts
Ch 9 Notes. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Re-dox reactions: Reduction/Oxidation rxns. Basically a transfer of electrons from something less electronegative to something more electronegative. Molecules release energy when this happens. Oxygen is very electronegative, so it acts like an electron magnet. LEO = Lose Electrons Oxidation GER = Gain Electrons Reduction So how do we capture the energy released? We use a series of reactions called cellular respiration: Glycolysis, Kreb’s Cycle, Electron Transport Chain (ETC). Glycolysis (Splitting a sugar) Takes place in the cytosol. No Oxygen necessary. Uses enzymes. Goes in: Glucose + 2ATP Comes out: 4 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 Pyruvates. Kreb’s Cycle: Discovered by Hans Kreb’s, 1930. Basically, it’s a series of reactions that remove electrons from the sugar (what’s left of them). We are now entering the mitochondria Goes in: Pyruvate (converted to Acetyl Co-A), NAD+, FAD. Comes out: CO2 , 6NADH, 2FADH2, 2ATP Electron Transport Chain (ETC): A series of molecules embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Electron Transport Chain What goes in: 10 NADH, 2 FADH2, lots of ADP, Oxygen What comes out: ~34ATP, NAD+, FAD, H2O Fermentation: 2 main pathways. Lactic Acid/Alcohol Fermentation. Use glycolysis (the start of both fermentation and cellular respiration). Fermentation doesn’t use Oxygen. Anaerobic organisms can use fermentation (yeast, bacteria). Pyruvate instead of going to the Kreb’s cycle, gets turned into alcohol or lactic acid.