Download From Roman Republic to Empire

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From Roman Republic to
The City of Rome
Establishing a Republic
● After several kings and tyrants, the Romans established a
*Review: What is a tyrant?
What is a Republic?
● Republic-A gov’t where citizens exert power by having the
right to vote for their leaders
● Citizenship in Rome=free-born males
Social Classes in Rome
● Wealthy landowners who held most of the power
● Inherited power and social status
● Claimed ancestry gave them the power to make laws
Common farmers, artisans, and merchants
Majority of population
Had right to vote
Couldn’t hold important gov’t positions
● Plebeians formed their own assembly
● Elected tribunes as representatives
● Tribunes job was to protect plebeians’ rights
The Twelve Tables
Written law code
Protected plebeians
Basis for Roman law
All free citizens had a right to the
protection of the law
A Balanced Government
● Rome claimed to have a balanced gov’t
● Best features of a monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy
● Two officials
○ Comparable to kings
○ Command the army
○ Directed the gov’t
○ 1 year term
○ Couldn’t be reelected for 10 years
○ One could veto the other
The Senate
● Comparable to an oligarchy
○ 300 men
○ Upper class
○ Later plebeians were allowed
● Democratic side of gov’t
○ Elected tribunes
○ Made laws for the common people
● Leader with absolute power
○ Only in times of crisis
○ Rule lasted 6 months
○ Commanded the army
○ Chosen by consuls
○ Elected by senate
Section Two: Power to
Roman Expansion
Rome Expands its Territory
● As Rome expanded its territory, the republic and government
grew more and more unstable
Two Major Problems
● Two major problems emerged
○ Increased gap between the rich and the poor
○ Breakdown of the once loyal military
Read and take notes on
“The Roman Empire” to find
out what happens next!