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Pavlov, Watson
and Skinner
 Students will be able to understand, identify, and
create examples of classic conditioning
 Students will be able to understand, identify, and
evaluate behaviorism.
 Students will be able to condition Pavlov's dog through
an online simulation.
 Students will be able to identify examples of
conditioning in our everyday life.
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
What makes us human?
What Makes Us Human?
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
Hypothesize how students would react if the school bell
sound was changed in any way.
Do you think students could be trained to respond to
only one type of bell?
 Answer the following writing prompt in your mini-
Describe how an individual learns. Provide an example
that illustrates your explanation.
 Learning is the process through which experience
modifies pre-existing behavior and understanding.
Psychological Questions on Learning
1. Which events and relationships do people learn
2. What circumstances determine whether and how
people learn?
3. Is learning a slow process requiring lots of practice,
or does it involve sudden flashes of insight?
 Goals
 To study only observable behavior and explain behavior
via learning principles
 Methods
 Observation of the relationship between environmental
stimuli and behavioral responses.
Ivan Pavlov
2. John Watson
3. B.F. Skinner
Classical and Operant Conditioning - Part 1
Classical and Operant Conditioning - Part 2
 Pavlov discovered the basic concepts behind associative
learning in both animals and humans.
 His theory of conditioned reflexes, or "training" individuals
to respond to a neutral stimulus, laid the groundwork for
behavioral psychology and associative learning theory.
 His work on behavior and thought experiments explained
the causes of some mental disorders and helped develop
effective behavioral therapy methods.
 Pavlov discovered that his laboratory dogs would
salivate after hearing a sound or other sensory
stimulus that they had learned to associate with food,
even if no food was present.
 Classic conditioning
 A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a
stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the
neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response.
 Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
 A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning
 Unconditioned response (UCR)
 The automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus
 Conditioned stimulus (CS)
 The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the
unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned
 Conditioned Response (CR)
 The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
 Extinction
 The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response
due to elimination of the association between
conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
 Reconditioning
 The quick relearning of a conditioned response
following extinction.
 Spontaneous recovery
 The reappearance of the conditioned response after
extinction and without further pairings of the
conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
 Log the following video in your video source graphic
Classical Conditioning
Unit: Theoretical Foundations
Theme: Behaviorism
Thread: Learning
 Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
 The teacher assigns homework to the class.
 Unconditioned response (UCR)
 The entire class chooses not to do homework.
 Conditioned stimulus (CS)
 The teacher assigns homework to the class and says to the
class, “All students who do not turn in their homework will
receive a phone call home.”
 Conditioned Response (CR)
 The entire class completes their homework.
Classical Conditioning at BGSU
 Stimulus Generalization
 A phenomena in which a conditioned response is
elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to
the conditioned stimulus.
 Stimulus discrimination
 A process through which individuals learn to
differentiate among similar stimuli and respond
appropriately to each one.
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
Jaws Theme Song
Halloween Theme Song
See if you can correctly identify the NS,
NS = No Response
Martin likes to take a shower in the men’s locker
room after working out. During one such shower, he
hears someone flushing a nearby toilet. Suddenly,
boiling-hot water rushes out of the shower head,
causing Martin serious discomfort. As he continues
the shower, he hears another toilet flush and
immediately jumps out from under the showerhead.
Hot Water
NS = No Response
Flush Hot Water Serious Discomfort
Avoidance/Fear – Jumps Out
Jeanette was happy when she heard her family’s
plan to go to a water sports show. Then she heard the
weather report, which predicted temperatures exceeding
100 degrees. Jeanette suspected that the weather would
be hard to bear, but she went to the show. As she
watched the water skiers perform taxing routines to the
blaring organ music, she got more and more sweaty and
uncomfortable. Eventually, she fainted from the heat.
After the family outing, Jeanette could never again hear
organ music without feeling a little dizzy.
Hot Temp
NS = No Response
Music Hot Temp Fainting
Brian was really looking forward to lunch. His
mother had prepared a tuna salad sandwich.
Unfortunately, the mayonnaise she used had been
left out too long and was tainted. Not long after
eating, Brian felt extremely nauseated and had to
rush to the bathroom. Thereafter, the mere
mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian
scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach.
Bad Mayo
NS = No Response
Tuna Bad Mayo Sick
Sick (rolling stomach)
Captain Hook had a nasty encounter with a
crocodile in Never-Never Land. As a result of the
battle, he lost his hand to the croc, which also
swallowed an alarm clock. Fortunately for Hook,
the loud ticking warned him of the hungry croc’s
approach. Unfortunately for Hook, any clock’s
ticking now ushers in a full-blown anxiety attack.
NS = No Response
Clock Croc Bite
Ticking Anxiety Attack
Croc Bite
 Try to locate the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the
following 1 minute video clip.
The Office Altoid Experiment
 Research Methods Free-Response exams are graded,
but waiting for several individuals to make them up. If
you are one of those people, you have until tomorrow,
Tuesday, November 6th to make it up.
 Classical Conditioning Practice #2 is due tomorrow.
 Train Your Dog exercise is due Friday, November 9th.
(20 points Extra Credit)
 Answer the following questions in your notebook:
Can you remember some example from your childhood
of when your parents taught you using classical
conditioning, operant conditioning, and/or associative
 Answer the following question in your mini
Is there a difference between the way animals and
humans learn?
John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup.
Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurts, then goes to the
dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes
every 6-months.
What behavior was changed?
going to the dentist
Was the behavior strengthened or weakened?
strengthened (eliminate response cost and punishment)
What was the consequence?
tooth no longer hurting
Was the consequence added or subtracted?
Subtracted..the pain is gone
Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was
strengthened, the process is negative reinforcement.
(1878 – 1958)
American Psychologist, Founder of Behaviorism
 Inspired by Pavlov, he began studying the behavior of
children, as well, concluding that humans were simply
more complicated than animals but operated on the same
 All animals, he believed, were extremely complex machines
that responded to situations according to their "wiring," or
nerve pathways that were conditioned by experience.
 Watson disagreed with Freud and found the latter's views
on human behavior philosophical to the point of
mysticism. He also dismissed heredity as a significant
factor in shaping human behavior.
 Watson believed it was utterly unscientific to study the
unconsciousness and consciousness as they are
unobservable by the scientific method.
 Watson believed that learning is the most important
determinant of behavior and that is through learning that
organisms are able to adapt to their environment.
 Watson was famous for claiming that with enough control
over the environment, he could create learning experiences
that would turn any infant into a doctor, a lawyer, or even a
 Log the following video in your video source graphic
Baby Albert Experiment
John Watson - Little-Albert
Unit: Theoretical Foundations
Theme: Behaviorism
Thread: Ethical vs Unethical
 Answer the following question in your mini notebook:
Should the Baby Albert experiment be considered a
ethical or unethical research method?
Every time Marge raises her hand in class she is called on. She
raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the
second and 4 times during the last class.
What behavior was changed?
hand raising
Was the behavior strengthened or weakened?
strengthened (eliminates punishment)
What was the consequence?
being called on (A good thing..a reward)
Was the consequence added or subtracted?
 Since the consequence was added and the behavior was
strengthened, the process is positive reinforcement
Instructions: Below are everyday situations in which some form of operant behavior is
occurring. After reading each scenario, indicate whether it is an instance of
generalization or discrimination.
Situation 1:
 We stop our vehicles when the traffic light is red, but continue through the light when it
is green.
Situation 2:
 We sit quietly in our seats during class examinations, church services, theatrical
presentations, and funerals.
Situation 3:
 We raise our hands before speaking in class but not while talking to a friend or while at a
Situation 4:
 We put our feet up on our desk and coffee table at home, but not on our grandparents'
coffee table.
Situation 5:
 We mistake a stranger for a friend of ours.
Situation 6:
 We answer the doorbell when it was really the phone that was ringing.
B.F. Skinner
"Society attacks
early when the
individual is
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
(1904 –1990)
American behaviorist, author, inventor, social philosopher
and poet.
 He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at
Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974.
 Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber,
innovated his own philosophy of science called radical
behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental
research psychology.
 His analysis of human behavior culminated in his work
Verbal Behavior, which has recently seen enormous
increase in interest experimentally and in applied settings.
 A process through which an organism learns to
respond to the environment in a way that produces
positive consequences.
 The organism is in the process of “operating” on the
environment, which in ordinary terms means it is
bouncing around its world, doing what it does.
 Example:
 When a child says, “Momma, I’m hungry,” and is then
fed, the child has made an operant response that
influences when food will appear.
 A law stating that if a response made in the presence
of a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that
response is more likely the next time the stimulus is
 The organism encounters a special kind of stimulus,
called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer.
 This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the
operant -- that is, the behavior occurring just before
the reinforcer.
 The behavior is followed by a consequence, and the
nature of the consequence modifies the organisms
tendency to repeat the behavior in the future.
 A stimulus event that increases the probability that the
response that immediately preceded it will occur again.
 Positive Reinforcers
 Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that
 (i.e. money, food, smiles)
 Negative Reinforcers
 The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain
 (i.e. Taking aspirin to remove headache)
Decreases likelihood of
Increases likelihood of
Positive Punishment
Positive Reinforcement
Taken Away
Negative Punishment
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Punishment
 If you stroke a cat's fur in a manner that the cat finds unpleasant, the cat may attempt to
bite you. Therefore, the presentation of the cat's bite will act as a positive punisher and
decrease the likelihood that you will stroke the cat in that same manner in the future.
Negative Punishment
 When a child "talks back" to his/her mother, the child may lose the privilege of watching
her favorite television program. Therefore, the loss of viewing privileges will act as a
negative punisher and decrease the likelihood of the child talking back in the future.
Positive Reinforcement
 If you stroke a cat's fur in a manner that is pleasing to the cat it will purr. The cat's
purring may act as a positive reinforcer, causing you to stroke the cat's fur in the same
manner in the future.
Negative Reinforcement
 Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than
usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the
next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is
strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.
 Log the following video in your video source graphic
BF Skinner Foundation A Fresh Appraisal
The Shaping Experiment
Project ORCON - A Pidgeon Guided Missile
Unit: Theoretical Foundations
Theme: Behaviorism
Thread: Conditioning
Behavior Modification Exercise
Make sure to state the behavior you wish to see or not see, the
type of conditioning you plan to use, and a detailed description of
your methodology. The more terms the better.
A boy in kindergarten continually gets up out of his seat and
pesters other students. As his teacher, design a behavior
modification program for him.
A three-year-old wakes up every night and cries loudly until a
parent goes to the child and lies with them until the child falls
Your dog barks at 4am every day and the neighbors are
threatening police action if it doesn’t stop. How will you train
your dog?
Big Bang Theory - Sheldon Trains Penny
Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the
desired response each time it occurs.
Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a
response only part of the time. Though this
results in slower acquisition in the
beginning, it shows greater resistance to
extinction later on.
 Continuous
reinforcement refers to
reinforcement being
administered to each
instance of a response
 Partial reinforcement
lies between
reinforcement and
 Each instance of a smile is reinforced
 Continuous Reinforcement –
A schedule of reinforcement in
which every correct response is
 Partial Reinforcement – One
of several reinforcement
schedules in which not every
correct response is reinforced.
 Which method do you think is
used more in real life?
 Ratio Version –
having to do with
instances of the
 Ex. – Reinforce or
reward the behavior
after a set number or x
many times that an
action or behavior is
 Interval Version –
having to do with the
passage of time.
 Ex. – Reinforce the
participant after a set
number or x period of
time that the behavior
is displayed.
Fixed-interval schedule – A schedule in which a
fixed amount of time must elapse between the
previous and subsequent times that reinforcement
will occur.
No response during the interval is reinforced.
The first response following the interval is reinforced.
Produces an overall low rate of responding
Ex. I get one pellet of food every 5 minutes when I press
the lever
 Variable-interval Schedule – A schedule in which a
variable amount of time must elapse between the
previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is
 Produces an overall low consistent rate of responding.
 Ex. – I get a pellet of food on average every 5 minutes
when I press the bar.
Fixed-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which
reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of
correct responses.
 These schedules usually produce rapid rates of
responding with short post-reinforcement pauses
 The length of the pause is directly proportional to the
number of responses required
 Ex. – For every 5 bar presses, I get one pellet of food
 Every fourth instance of a smile is reinforced
Variable-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which
reinforcement is provided after a variable number of
correct responses.
 Produce an overall high consistent rate of responding.
 Ex. – On average, I press the bar 5 times for one pellet of
 Random instances of the behavior are reinforced
 Fixed-interval
 Variable-interval
 Fixed-ratio
 Variable-ratio
 The Fun Theory post is due on Sunday, November 11th by
 B.F. Skinner Quotes Tweet 7 is due on Sunday, November
11th by 11:59pm.
 All make-up from the 1st quarter must be submitted by
Sunday, November 11th.
 All exams must be made up today after school.
 Mr. H will be available for tutoring today after school.
Behavior Modification Exercise
Make sure to state the behavior you wish to see or not see, the
type of conditioning you plan to use, and a detailed description of
your methodology. The more terms the better.
Mary cries whenever her stern boss points out her errors. As her
therapist, what learning techniques will you try so that Mary will be
considered for promotion
Dave has agoraphobia and will not leave his house. His computer job
and the Internet make it possible to earn a solid income but he is
very unhappy about this lack of a social life. How will you get him
out of his house?
Your class of freshmen is out of control. They arrive late, yell back at
you, refuse to do any class work and won’t go to after school
detentions? What might we try to gain the upper hand?
1. Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
only after a specified number of responses.
e.g., piecework pay.
2. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
after an unpredictable number of responses.
This is hard to extinguish because of the
unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like
gambling, fishing.)
1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response
only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g.,
preparing for an exam only when the exam
draws close.)
2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response
at unpredictable time intervals, which produces
slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.)
Reinforcement depends on
a definite number of
Activity slows after
reinforcement and
then picks up
Number of responses
needed for reinforcement
Greatest activity of
all schedules
Reinforcement depends on
a fixed time
Activity increases as
deadline nears
Time between
reinforcement varies
Steady activity
 “Observational Learning” forum post due by Sunday,
November 18th by 11:59pm.
 AP Psych Tweet 8 VIA Institute is due by Sunday,
November 18th by 11:59pm.
 “The Contagion of Character: Building a Better Society,
Not Just a Better Self”
 All 1st Quarter work will no longer be accepted.
 (prior to October 11th)
Critical Thought Question
Schedules of Reinforcement Table
Review of Homework Assignment
Demonstration – The Hernandez Box
 Classical vs. Operant Conditioning
Students will be able to practice schedules of reinforcement
with 90% accuracy.
2. Students will be able to distinguish general differences
between principles of classical conditioning and operant
conditioning with 90% accuracy.
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
What types of "real world" rewards occur on a delayed
schedule? Did you learn to wait for rewards? Why or
why not? Does the media encourage people to delay
gratification? Why or why not?
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
Many teachers give grades on a continuous
reinforcement schedule, awarding points for every
assignment students turn in.
What are the positive and negative impacts of this type
of reinforcement on learning?
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
Imagine that you would only receive reinforcement for
perfect performance.
Would you be a student who learns how to behave
perfectly? Or would students be frustrated and fail?
Fixed interval
Reward on fixed
time basis
Leads to average
and irregular
Fast extinction of
Fixed ratio
Reward tied to
specific number
of responses
Leads quickly to
very high and
Moderately fast
extinction of
Variable interval
Reward given
after varying
periods of time
Leads to
moderately high
and stable
Slow extinction of
Variable ratio
Reward given for
some behaviors
Very slow
Leads to very
high performance extinction of
Bottle bank Arcade
Piano Staircase
The Speed Camera Lottery
The Play Belt
The Worlds Deepest Bin
 Log the following video in your video source graphic
A Technology Dream or Nightmare?
When I bake cookies, I can only put one set in at a time,
so after 10 minutes my first set of cookies is done. After
another ten minutes, my second set of cookies is done. I
get to eat a cookie after each set is done baking.
After every 10 math problems that I complete, I allow
myself a 5 minute break.
I look over my notes every night because I never know
how much time will go by before my next pop quiz.
When hunting season comes around, sometimes I’ll
spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get a shot at a
big buck. It’s worth it though when I get a nice 10 point.
Today in Psychology class we were talking about
Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was eagerly
raising their hands and participating. Miranda raised her
hand a couple of times and was eventually called on.
6. Madison spanks her son if she has to ask him three times
to clean up his room.
7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She usually does
well and gets a star sticker.
8. Steve’s a big gambling man. He plays the slot machines
all day hoping for a big win.
Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day. They
might watch any number of prey go by before they
decide to strike.
10. Mr. Bertani receives a salary paycheck every 2 weeks.
(Miss Suter doesn’t ).
Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2 bottles of
lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in commission.
12. Mike is trying to study for his upcoming Psychology
quiz. He reads five pages, then takes a break. He
resumes reading and takes another break after he has
completed 5 more pages.
6. FR
7. FI
8. VR
10. FI
13. Megan is fundraising to try to raise money so she can go on
the annual band trip. She goes door to door in her
neighborhood trying to sell popcorn tins. She eventually
sells some.
14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big city. Her boss
is busy, so he only checks her work periodically.
15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice. His customers
makes payments at irregular times.
16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a raise every year at the
same time and never in between.
17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge of attaching
3 parts. After he gets his parts attached, he gets some free
time before the next car moves down the line.
18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell life insurance. After
so many calls, someone will eventually buy.
13. VR
14. VI
15. VI
16. FI
17. FR
18. VR
The Hernandez Box
 Need 2 volunteers
 The class will determine a specific behavior that needs
to be exhibited by the volunteers.
 The class will provide the volunteers with both positive
and negative reinforcement to shape their behavior to
warranted action.
 Strange Paper Assignments have been graded and
emailed back to those that turned in assignment.
 Course website has been updated with all the
handouts and videos that we have used.
 Mr. H will be available for tutoring after school.
Critical Thought Question
Return Graded Work /Turn in Homework Assignment
Positive and Negative Reinforcement Table Review
Go over Positive and Negative Reinforcement – Practice #1
Introduction to Social-Cognition Learning – Lecture/Notes
 Reinforcement and Punishment – Practice #2
1. Students will be able to practice positive and negative
reinforcement and punishment with 90% accuracy.
2. Students will be able to distinguish general differences
between reinforcement and punishment with 90%
 Answer the following question in your notebook:
Who is your “role model” and why? What have you
learned from watching this person?