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Pavlov, Watson and Skinner Students will be able to understand, identify, and create examples of classic conditioning Students will be able to understand, identify, and evaluate behaviorism. Students will be able to condition Pavlov's dog through an online simulation. Students will be able to identify examples of conditioning in our everyday life. Answer the following question in your notebook: What makes us human? What Makes Us Human? Answer the following question in your notebook: Hypothesize how students would react if the school bell sound was changed in any way. Do you think students could be trained to respond to only one type of bell? Answer the following writing prompt in your mini- notebooks: Describe how an individual learns. Provide an example that illustrates your explanation. Learning is the process through which experience modifies pre-existing behavior and understanding. Psychological Questions on Learning 1. Which events and relationships do people learn from? 2. What circumstances determine whether and how people learn? 3. Is learning a slow process requiring lots of practice, or does it involve sudden flashes of insight? Goals To study only observable behavior and explain behavior via learning principles Methods Observation of the relationship between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses. Ivan Pavlov 2. John Watson 3. B.F. Skinner 1. Classical and Operant Conditioning - Part 1 Classical and Operant Conditioning - Part 2 (1849–1936) RUSSIAN PHYSIOLOGIST, PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCHER Pavlov discovered the basic concepts behind associative learning in both animals and humans. His theory of conditioned reflexes, or "training" individuals to respond to a neutral stimulus, laid the groundwork for behavioral psychology and associative learning theory. His work on behavior and thought experiments explained the causes of some mental disorders and helped develop effective behavioral therapy methods. Pavlov discovered that his laboratory dogs would salivate after hearing a sound or other sensory stimulus that they had learned to associate with food, even if no food was present. Classic conditioning A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR) The automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus Conditioned stimulus (CS) The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response. Conditioned Response (CR) The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits Extinction The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response due to elimination of the association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Reconditioning The quick relearning of a conditioned response following extinction. Spontaneous recovery The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Log the following video in your video source graphic organizer. Title Classical Conditioning Unit: Theoretical Foundations Theme: Behaviorism Thread: Learning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) The teacher assigns homework to the class. Unconditioned response (UCR) The entire class chooses not to do homework. Conditioned stimulus (CS) The teacher assigns homework to the class and says to the class, “All students who do not turn in their homework will receive a phone call home.” Conditioned Response (CR) The entire class completes their homework. Classical Conditioning at BGSU Stimulus Generalization A phenomena in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus. Stimulus discrimination A process through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one. Answer the following question in your notebook: Jaws Theme Song Halloween Theme Song See if you can correctly identify the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, CR BEFORE NS = No Response DURING: NS + UCS = UCR AFTER: CS = CR UCS = UCR Martin likes to take a shower in the men’s locker room after working out. During one such shower, he hears someone flushing a nearby toilet. Suddenly, boiling-hot water rushes out of the shower head, causing Martin serious discomfort. As he continues the shower, he hears another toilet flush and immediately jumps out from under the showerhead. BEFORE Toilet Flush Hot Water NS = No Response DURING: Toilet Flush Hot Water Serious Discomfort NS + UCS = UCR AFTER: Toilet Flush Avoidance/Fear – Jumps Out CS = CR Serious Discomfort UCS = UCR Jeanette was happy when she heard her family’s plan to go to a water sports show. Then she heard the weather report, which predicted temperatures exceeding 100 degrees. Jeanette suspected that the weather would be hard to bear, but she went to the show. As she watched the water skiers perform taxing routines to the blaring organ music, she got more and more sweaty and uncomfortable. Eventually, she fainted from the heat. After the family outing, Jeanette could never again hear organ music without feeling a little dizzy. BEFORE Organ Music Hot Temp NS = No Response DURING: Organ Music Hot Temp Fainting NS + UCS = UCR AFTER: Organ Music Dizziness CS = CR Fainting UCS = UCR Brian was really looking forward to lunch. His mother had prepared a tuna salad sandwich. Unfortunately, the mayonnaise she used had been left out too long and was tainted. Not long after eating, Brian felt extremely nauseated and had to rush to the bathroom. Thereafter, the mere mention of a tuna sandwich would send Brian scurrying to the bathroom with a rolling stomach. BEFORE Tuna Bad Mayo NS = No Response DURING: Tuna Bad Mayo Sick NS + UCS = UCR AFTER: Tuna Sick (rolling stomach) CS = CR Sick UCS = UCR Captain Hook had a nasty encounter with a crocodile in Never-Never Land. As a result of the battle, he lost his hand to the croc, which also swallowed an alarm clock. Fortunately for Hook, the loud ticking warned him of the hungry croc’s approach. Unfortunately for Hook, any clock’s ticking now ushers in a full-blown anxiety attack. BEFORE Clock Ticking NS = No Response DURING: Clock Croc Bite Pain Ticking NS + UCS = UCR AFTER: Clock Ticking Anxiety Attack CS = CR Croc Bite Pain UCS = UCR Try to locate the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the following 1 minute video clip. The Office Altoid Experiment Research Methods Free-Response exams are graded, but waiting for several individuals to make them up. If you are one of those people, you have until tomorrow, Tuesday, November 6th to make it up. Classical Conditioning Practice #2 is due tomorrow. Train Your Dog exercise is due Friday, November 9th. (20 points Extra Credit) Answer the following questions in your notebook: Can you remember some example from your childhood of when your parents taught you using classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and/or associative learning? Answer the following question in your mini notebooks: Is there a difference between the way animals and humans learn? John does not go to the dentist every 6-months for a checkup. Instead, he waited until a tooth really hurts, then goes to the dentist. After two emergency trips to the dentist, John now goes every 6-months. What behavior was changed? 1. going to the dentist Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? 2. strengthened (eliminate response cost and punishment) What was the consequence? 3. tooth no longer hurting Was the consequence added or subtracted? 4. Subtracted..the pain is gone Since the consequence was subtracted and the behavior was strengthened, the process is negative reinforcement. (1878 – 1958) American Psychologist, Founder of Behaviorism Inspired by Pavlov, he began studying the behavior of children, as well, concluding that humans were simply more complicated than animals but operated on the same principles. All animals, he believed, were extremely complex machines that responded to situations according to their "wiring," or nerve pathways that were conditioned by experience. Watson disagreed with Freud and found the latter's views on human behavior philosophical to the point of mysticism. He also dismissed heredity as a significant factor in shaping human behavior. Watson believed it was utterly unscientific to study the unconsciousness and consciousness as they are unobservable by the scientific method. Watson believed that learning is the most important determinant of behavior and that is through learning that organisms are able to adapt to their environment. Watson was famous for claiming that with enough control over the environment, he could create learning experiences that would turn any infant into a doctor, a lawyer, or even a criminal. Log the following video in your video source graphic organizer. Title Baby Albert Experiment John Watson - Little-Albert Unit: Theoretical Foundations Theme: Behaviorism Thread: Ethical vs Unethical Answer the following question in your mini notebook: Should the Baby Albert experiment be considered a ethical or unethical research method? Every time Marge raises her hand in class she is called on. She raised her hand 3 time during the first class, 3 times in the second and 4 times during the last class. 1. What behavior was changed? hand raising Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? 2. strengthened (eliminates punishment) What was the consequence? 3. being called on (A good thing..a reward) Was the consequence added or subtracted? 4. added Since the consequence was added and the behavior was strengthened, the process is positive reinforcement Instructions: Below are everyday situations in which some form of operant behavior is occurring. After reading each scenario, indicate whether it is an instance of generalization or discrimination. Situation 1: We stop our vehicles when the traffic light is red, but continue through the light when it is green. Situation 2: We sit quietly in our seats during class examinations, church services, theatrical presentations, and funerals. Situation 3: We raise our hands before speaking in class but not while talking to a friend or while at a party. Situation 4: We put our feet up on our desk and coffee table at home, but not on our grandparents' coffee table. Situation 5: We mistake a stranger for a friend of ours. Situation 6: We answer the doorbell when it was really the phone that was ringing. B.F. Skinner "Society attacks early when the individual is helpless." Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904 –1990) American behaviorist, author, inventor, social philosopher and poet. He was the Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology at Harvard University from 1958 until his retirement in 1974. Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviorism, and founded his own school of experimental research psychology. His analysis of human behavior culminated in his work Verbal Behavior, which has recently seen enormous increase in interest experimentally and in applied settings. A process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences. The organism is in the process of “operating” on the environment, which in ordinary terms means it is bouncing around its world, doing what it does. Example: When a child says, “Momma, I’m hungry,” and is then fed, the child has made an operant response that influences when food will appear. A law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered. The organism encounters a special kind of stimulus, called a reinforcing stimulus, or simply a reinforcer. This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant -- that is, the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. The behavior is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organisms tendency to repeat the behavior in the future. A stimulus event that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again. Positive Reinforcers Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response (i.e. money, food, smiles) Negative Reinforcers The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain (i.e. Taking aspirin to remove headache) Decreases likelihood of behavior Increases likelihood of behavior Presented Positive Punishment Positive Reinforcement Taken Away Negative Punishment Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment If you stroke a cat's fur in a manner that the cat finds unpleasant, the cat may attempt to bite you. Therefore, the presentation of the cat's bite will act as a positive punisher and decrease the likelihood that you will stroke the cat in that same manner in the future. Negative Punishment When a child "talks back" to his/her mother, the child may lose the privilege of watching her favorite television program. Therefore, the loss of viewing privileges will act as a negative punisher and decrease the likelihood of the child talking back in the future. Positive Reinforcement If you stroke a cat's fur in a manner that is pleasing to the cat it will purr. The cat's purring may act as a positive reinforcer, causing you to stroke the cat's fur in the same manner in the future. Negative Reinforcement Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. Log the following video in your video source graphic organizer. Title BF Skinner Foundation A Fresh Appraisal The Shaping Experiment Project ORCON - A Pidgeon Guided Missile Unit: Theoretical Foundations Theme: Behaviorism Thread: Conditioning Behavior Modification Exercise Make sure to state the behavior you wish to see or not see, the type of conditioning you plan to use, and a detailed description of your methodology. The more terms the better. 1. 2. 3. A boy in kindergarten continually gets up out of his seat and pesters other students. As his teacher, design a behavior modification program for him. A three-year-old wakes up every night and cries loudly until a parent goes to the child and lies with them until the child falls asleep. Your dog barks at 4am every day and the neighbors are threatening police action if it doesn’t stop. How will you train your dog? Big Bang Theory - Sheldon Trains Penny 1. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs. 2. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a response only part of the time. Though this results in slower acquisition in the beginning, it shows greater resistance to extinction later on. Continuous reinforcement refers to reinforcement being administered to each instance of a response Partial reinforcement lies between continuous reinforcement and extinction Each instance of a smile is reinforced Continuous Reinforcement – A schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced. Partial Reinforcement – One of several reinforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced. Which method do you think is used more in real life? Ratio Version – having to do with instances of the behavior. Ex. – Reinforce or reward the behavior after a set number or x many times that an action or behavior is demonstrated. Interval Version – having to do with the passage of time. Ex. – Reinforce the participant after a set number or x period of time that the behavior is displayed. Fixed-interval schedule – A schedule in which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement will occur. No response during the interval is reinforced. The first response following the interval is reinforced. Produces an overall low rate of responding Ex. I get one pellet of food every 5 minutes when I press the lever Variable-interval Schedule – A schedule in which a variable amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available. Produces an overall low consistent rate of responding. Ex. – I get a pellet of food on average every 5 minutes when I press the bar. Fixed-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses. These schedules usually produce rapid rates of responding with short post-reinforcement pauses The length of the pause is directly proportional to the number of responses required Ex. – For every 5 bar presses, I get one pellet of food Every fourth instance of a smile is reinforced Variable-ratio Schedule – A schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses. Produce an overall high consistent rate of responding. Ex. – On average, I press the bar 5 times for one pellet of food. Random instances of the behavior are reinforced Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule The Fun Theory post is due on Sunday, November 11th by 11:59pm. B.F. Skinner Quotes Tweet 7 is due on Sunday, November 11th by 11:59pm. All make-up from the 1st quarter must be submitted by Sunday, November 11th. All exams must be made up today after school. Mr. H will be available for tutoring today after school. Behavior Modification Exercise Make sure to state the behavior you wish to see or not see, the type of conditioning you plan to use, and a detailed description of your methodology. The more terms the better. 1. 2. 3. Mary cries whenever her stern boss points out her errors. As her therapist, what learning techniques will you try so that Mary will be considered for promotion Dave has agoraphobia and will not leave his house. His computer job and the Internet make it possible to earn a solid income but he is very unhappy about this lack of a social life. How will you get him out of his house? Your class of freshmen is out of control. They arrive late, yell back at you, refuse to do any class work and won’t go to after school detentions? What might we try to gain the upper hand? 1. Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. e.g., piecework pay. 2. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. This is hard to extinguish because of the unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like gambling, fishing.) 1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam only when the exam draws close.) 2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals, which produces slow, steady responses. (e.g., pop quiz.) TYPE MEANING OUTCOME Fixed Ratio Reinforcement depends on a definite number of responses Activity slows after reinforcement and then picks up Variable Ratio Number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Greatest activity of all schedules Fixed Interval Reinforcement depends on a fixed time Activity increases as deadline nears Variable Interval Time between reinforcement varies Steady activity results “Observational Learning” forum post due by Sunday, November 18th by 11:59pm. AP Psych Tweet 8 VIA Institute is due by Sunday, November 18th by 11:59pm. “The Contagion of Character: Building a Better Society, Not Just a Better Self” All 1st Quarter work will no longer be accepted. (prior to October 11th) Critical Thought Question Schedules of Reinforcement Table Review of Homework Assignment Demonstration – The Hernandez Box Homework Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Objectives 1. Students will be able to practice schedules of reinforcement with 90% accuracy. 2. Students will be able to distinguish general differences between principles of classical conditioning and operant conditioning with 90% accuracy. Answer the following question in your notebook: What types of "real world" rewards occur on a delayed schedule? Did you learn to wait for rewards? Why or why not? Does the media encourage people to delay gratification? Why or why not? Answer the following question in your notebook: Many teachers give grades on a continuous reinforcement schedule, awarding points for every assignment students turn in. What are the positive and negative impacts of this type of reinforcement on learning? Answer the following question in your notebook: Imagine that you would only receive reinforcement for perfect performance. Would you be a student who learns how to behave perfectly? Or would students be frustrated and fail? FORM OF REWARD INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE Fixed interval Reward on fixed time basis Leads to average and irregular performance Fast extinction of behavior Fixed ratio Reward tied to specific number of responses Leads quickly to very high and stable performance Moderately fast extinction of behavior Variable interval Reward given after varying periods of time Leads to moderately high and stable performance Slow extinction of behavior Variable ratio Reward given for some behaviors Very slow Leads to very high performance extinction of behavior SCHEDULE EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR Bottle bank Arcade Piano Staircase The Speed Camera Lottery The Play Belt The Worlds Deepest Bin Log the following video in your video source graphic organizer. A Technology Dream or Nightmare? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When I bake cookies, I can only put one set in at a time, so after 10 minutes my first set of cookies is done. After another ten minutes, my second set of cookies is done. I get to eat a cookie after each set is done baking. After every 10 math problems that I complete, I allow myself a 5 minute break. I look over my notes every night because I never know how much time will go by before my next pop quiz. When hunting season comes around, sometimes I’ll spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get a shot at a big buck. It’s worth it though when I get a nice 10 point. Today in Psychology class we were talking about Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was eagerly raising their hands and participating. Miranda raised her hand a couple of times and was eventually called on. 1. FI 2. FR 3. VI 4. VI 5. VR 6. Madison spanks her son if she has to ask him three times to clean up his room. 7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She usually does well and gets a star sticker. 8. Steve’s a big gambling man. He plays the slot machines all day hoping for a big win. 9. Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day. They might watch any number of prey go by before they decide to strike. 10. Mr. Bertani receives a salary paycheck every 2 weeks. (Miss Suter doesn’t ). 11. Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2 bottles of lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in commission. 12. Mike is trying to study for his upcoming Psychology quiz. He reads five pages, then takes a break. He resumes reading and takes another break after he has completed 5 more pages. 6. FR 7. FI 8. VR 9. VI 10. FI 11. FR 12. FR 13. Megan is fundraising to try to raise money so she can go on the annual band trip. She goes door to door in her neighborhood trying to sell popcorn tins. She eventually sells some. 14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big city. Her boss is busy, so he only checks her work periodically. 15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice. His customers makes payments at irregular times. 16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a raise every year at the same time and never in between. 17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge of attaching 3 parts. After he gets his parts attached, he gets some free time before the next car moves down the line. 18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell life insurance. After so many calls, someone will eventually buy. 13. VR 14. VI 15. VI 16. FI 17. FR 18. VR The Hernandez Box Need 2 volunteers The class will determine a specific behavior that needs to be exhibited by the volunteers. The class will provide the volunteers with both positive and negative reinforcement to shape their behavior to warranted action. Strange Paper Assignments have been graded and emailed back to those that turned in assignment. Course website has been updated with all the handouts and videos that we have used. Mr. H will be available for tutoring after school. Critical Thought Question Return Graded Work /Turn in Homework Assignment Positive and Negative Reinforcement Table Review Go over Positive and Negative Reinforcement – Practice #1 Introduction to Social-Cognition Learning – Lecture/Notes Homework Reinforcement and Punishment – Practice #2 Objectives 1. Students will be able to practice positive and negative reinforcement and punishment with 90% accuracy. 2. Students will be able to distinguish general differences between reinforcement and punishment with 90% accuracy. Answer the following question in your notebook: Who is your “role model” and why? What have you learned from watching this person?