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Review Outline for Cumulative Final Exam – Fall 2011
Social Psychology – Dr. Schneider
(note: check back for updates based on chapter 12/13 material actually covered in class)
The length of the exam will be comparable to your previous 4 exams. Half of the questions will
be taken from previous exams and half of the questions will be new items covering the material
Ch 1: Intro to Social Psych
– Definition of Soc Psy – what are the 4 main emphases this semester?
– Importance of context
– How does social psych overlap and differ from other, related fields?
– Clinical, personality, cognitive psych? Sociology?
– Use of scientific method, hypotheses, theory – what are hypotheses and theories?
– History of Social Psych
– Effects of WW2 on the field – importance of interactionism (what is it?)
– Current influences – social cognition, evolution, culture, technology
– Examples of virtual environment research – how is it used? Current
research from Blascovich’s lab using technology?
Ch 2: The Research Process
– Use of scientific method
– Research Process steps:
 Refining ideas – construct validity, measurement of variables (self-report,
 Testing ideas –
 Descriptive research options: observations, archival data, surveys (random
sampling definition)
 Correlational Methods: interpretation of a correlation? (pos/neg)
 Experimental methods: most of social psych research; what are
distinguishing factors (what is random assignment?)
 Independent and Dependent variables – what are definitions of each?
o Culture and Research
 Translation issues – what is the best approach to translating surveys?
o Ethics – need informed consent & debriefing
Chapter 3: The Social Self
What are self-concepts and self-schemas?
• Sources of self-concept development:
o Self-perception (Bem’s research)
 Research on facial feedback – results?
 How do self-perceptions influence our motivation?
 Overjustification effect – what is it?
o Influence of other people –
 Festinger’s Social Comparison theory – how do we make comparisons?
o Culture and Self-concept:
 Individualism vs. Collectivism – how do people define themselves?
Self-esteem: definition and link to self-concepts
o Self-discrepancy theory
 Degree of self-awareness can influence our behavior – Halloween
Self-regulation and self-control
o Baumeister’s research – self-control as a limited resource that can be depleted
o Self-serving cognitions: self-handicapping, BIRGing
Chapter 4 – Perceptions of Others
 Importance of social perception in gaining information about people
o Nonverbal behaviors – 6 universal emotions
 Detecting deception from nonverbal cues: how good are we at this? What
are microexpressions?
 Attributions
o Heider’s distinction between personal vs. situational explanations for behaviors
o Kelly’s Covariation theory (Attribution) – attribution to person or situations
o Attribution biases – what are heuristics and how can they create bias?
 Availability heuristic – what is it and what is an example?
 Counterfactual thinking – what is it?
o Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) – what is it?
 Implicit Personality Theory – info about one trait informs perceptions of other traits
 Confirmation Biases
o Self-fulfilling prophecy – what is it?
Chapter 5 – Stereotypes, Prejudice, & Discrimination
 Distinctions between definitions of stereotype, prejudice, discrimination
o How do each related to affective, behavioral, & cognitive components?
 Racism
o Differences between overt racism and ‘modern’ racism
o How to best measure racism?
 Implicit Association Test (IAT) – how does it work?
 Sexism
o Prescriptive vs. descriptive gender stereotypes – what are they?
o Ambivalent sexism – components of hostile and benevolent sexism (what are
each of these?)
 Stereotype Threat – research by Claude Steele
o What is it and how does it influence performance? How is it studied in
 Sources of Prejudice
o Motivational Factors
 Intergroup conflict:
 Sherif’s Robber’s Cave experiment – what happened? What was
the effect of competition? How did Sherif resolve the conflict?
 Blue-Eyed/Brown Eyed Experiment
Be familiar with the details of Jane Elliott’s work – the original
study of 3rd graders and their experiences ‘on the bottom’ and ‘on
the top’. What are her main points?
o Cognitive Factors
 Outgroup homogeneity effect – what is it? Why does it happen?
o Culture
 Media effects – how does the media portray men and women differently?
 Archer’s research on ‘face-ism’
Reducing Prejudice
o Via Jigsaw classroom – how does it work? What are effects?
Chapter 6 – Attitudes
 Definition of attitude – affective, behavioral, cognitive components
 Attitude assessment – problems with self-reports?
o LaPierre’s research on self-reports versus behavioral observations
o Use of bogus pipeline to improve self-report measures – how is it done?
 Importance of roles in determining our behaviors & influencing attitudes
o Stanford Prison Experiment as example
 What are details of the study – how were participants assigned to roles of
‘guard’ and ‘prisoner’?
 How did the role play impact their behavior & attitudes?
 Persuasion
o Central route to persuasion – how does it work? Example?
o Peripheral route to persuasion – how does it work? Example?
o Message:
 Subliminal messages – what are they? Do they work?
o Audience
 Inoculation effect – how does this work?
 Reactance effect – how does this work?
Ch 7 - Conformity
Types of Social Influence – conformity, compliance, & obedience (definitions & how
does each differ from the others?)
Classic Conformity studies (Sherif & Asch)
o Why do people conform? Informational vs. normative purposes
o Strategies for compliance –
 Foot-in-the door technique – how does it work? Example?
 Door-in-the-face technique – how does it work? Example?
o Milgram’s research:
 Original experiment – what was the procedure?
 Impact of the situation on obedience: how did location, experimenter,
closeness to victim, and nonconformers influence the results?
Jonestown – cults and mass suicide
o Relate this example to obedience and conformity
o How did the situation play a role in the mass suicide?
Ch 8 – Groups
Group definition & functions of groups
How does the presence of others affect us?
o Social facilitation – what is it?
Social loafing – what is it? Why does it occur? How do we reduce it?
Deindividuation –what is it? Why does it occur?
Group performance – what is process loss?
Group polarization – what is it?
Groupthink – what is it?
Conflict Management Strategies – know differences between bargaining, mediation, and
Ch 9 – Attraction
 Affiliation vs. loneliness
 Attraction to friendships – important factors o Proximity –
o Mere exposure effect – how does this work?
o Physical attractiveness – matching phenomenon, ‘what is beautiful is good’
 Attachment & love – 3 attachment styles
 Theories of love
o Passionate/Companionate love – definitions of each
 Excitation transfer – what is it? Effects?
 Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus video – main points?
 Patterns of Marriage – role of affect reciprocity and attributions
Ch 10 – Helping Others
 Motives for altruism
 Evolutionary explanations – kin selection, reciprocity, empathy
 Cost-reward model – social exchange; egoistic vs. altruistic helping
 Bystander Effect (Latane & Darley’s research)
 What results are typical in bystander studies – influence of group size
 Effects of pluralistic ignorance, difficulty in interpreting situation, diffusion of
 Situational Influences (rural, culture, role models, gender & type of situation)
 Ways to increase helping
Ch 11 - Aggression
 Distinction between aggression & assertiveness – instrumental vs. emotional aggression
 Bio explanations (testosterone)
 Frustration-aggression theory
 Social Learning – Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment – what happened?
 Aggression triggers:
o Violent TV – Gerbner’s research on mean world syndrome
o Guns as cues for aggression
 Violent video games
Aggression & porn/rape myth
o Dornerstein’s research on violent porn and male-male v. male-female aggression
Catharsis hypothesis – what is it? supported or not?
How punishment can be effective
Chapter 12 – Social Psych and the Courtroom
 Eyewitness memory – Jennifer Thompson case as an example (know the general case)
– 3 stages of memory – how can each influence eyewitness memory?
 Acquisition – weapon focus
 Storage – loaded questions and misinformation effect (Loftus research)
 Retrieval – lineup format (Wells research), cognitive interviews
 Jurors’ perceptions of eyewitness testimony – differences in confidence & accuracy
 Jury deliberations – processing info in story vs. witness order
 Criticisms of jury research
Chapter 13 – Social Psych & Business
 Early research in I/O psych – Hawthorne Studies (details? Results?)
 Interview Research – concerns about faking and potential biases
 Other Selection Methods
o Standardized testing
 Links between general intelligence & job performance
 Integrity testing – overt vs. covert tests; faking?
 Leadership –
o Transaction vs. transformational leadership
o Gender and leadership – impact of stereotypes
 Motivation –
o Adam’s Equity theory – how does it work? Inputs to outputs