Download Review -

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Nucleic acid analogue wikipedia, lookup

Deoxyribozyme wikipedia, lookup

Genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Epitranscriptome wikipedia, lookup

Meiosis wikipedia, lookup

Chromosome wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Dominance (genetics) wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Quantitative trait locus wikipedia, lookup

Gene wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Medical genetics wikipedia, lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Human genetic variation wikipedia, lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia, lookup

Epistasis wikipedia, lookup

Hardy–Weinberg principle wikipedia, lookup

Genetic drift wikipedia, lookup

RNA-Seq wikipedia, lookup

Polymorphism (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Primary transcript wikipedia, lookup

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia, lookup

Non-coding RNA wikipedia, lookup

Vectors in gene therapy wikipedia, lookup

History of RNA biology wikipedia, lookup

RNA silencing wikipedia, lookup

RNA wikipedia, lookup

Mutation wikipedia, lookup

Group selection wikipedia, lookup

Nucleic acid tertiary structure wikipedia, lookup

Anthro 102
Exam 1: Review
1. Introduction: Anthropology as a holistic discipline. Complementarity of biology and culture. The four
subfields of anthropology: cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical (biological)
anthropology. Subdisciplines of biological anthropology: primatology, paleoanthropology,
bioarchaeology, paleopathology, human biology, ergonomics, forensics.
2. Theory of evolution as a scientific theory. Scientific method, testing a hypothesis. Charles Darwin &
Alfred Russel Wallace. Natural selection.
3. Cell and its structure. Eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes; endosymbiotic theory; nucleus, cytoplasm,
membrane, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes. Somatic cells vs. gametes.
4. The central dogma of molecular biology: DNA to RNA to protein. DNA and its structure: sugar,
phosphate, bases, principle of complementarity. Proteins, their structure and functions, enzymes, amino
acids, active centers. Replication, transcription, translation. Classes of RNA molecules: messenger RNA
(mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA). The role of tRNA in protein assembly, codons,
5. Cell division: mitosis vs. meiosis. Chromosomes vs. DNA, histones. Homologous chromosomes.
Mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. Meiosis: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I,
telophase I; prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II.
6. Mendelian genetics: genes and alleles, mutations, genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive,
frequencies of different gametes, frequencies of different types of offspring, blood groups, skin color
(eumelanin and pheomelanin), multiple alleles (ABO –blood groups), codominance.
Problems on Mendelian genetics:
a) given certain genotype, how many types of gametes does individual make;
b) what are the chances for Mr. X and Mrs. X to have a child with certain genotype;
c) given the genotypes of children, determine the genotypes of parents
d) multiple genes and multiple alleles.
7. Population genetics:
Hardy-Weinberg theorem and microevolution: population, types of isolation
Allele frequencies in a non-Hardy-Weinberg population:
fr(A) = (2#AA + #Aa)/(2*total); fr(a) = (2#aa + #Aa)/(2*total)
fr(A) = fr(AA)+0.5fr(Aa); fr(a) = fr(aa)+0.5fr(Aa)
fr(A) +fr(a) = 1  fr(a) = 1 – fr(A); fr(AA)+fr(Aa)+fr(aa) = 1
In a Hardy-Weinberg population (infinitely large, randomly mating, no mutation, no migration):
if fr(A) = p and fr(a) = q, then fr(AA) = p2, fr(Aa) = 2pq, fr(aa) = q2 and allele and genotype frequencies
do not change from generation to generation
If a population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then fr(a) = sqrt[fr(aa)]
8. Microevolution, forces of evolution (all natural forces that can cause allele frequency change):
(1) natural selection, (2) genetic drift, (3) gene flow, (4) mutations
(1) Natural selection: Biological fitness. Directional selection for the recessive phenotype, directional
selection for the dominant phenotype, balancing selection [examples of balancing selection – sickle cell
anemia, Tay-Sacks disease], disruptive selection.
(2) Gene flow: effects of gene flow on allele frequencies
(3) Genetic drift: bottle neck, founder effect, effect of genetic drift on allele frequencies, guenons; (4)
9. Human variation and natural selection (ch 5): body pigmentation; skin color, hair color, eye color
(polygenic traits), eumelanin and pheomelanin; skin color and natural selection – UV protection, skin
cancer, folate (vitamin B-9), vitamin D deficiency (rickets), lactose intolerance.
Genetic adaptations, developmental adaptations, acclimatization, behavioral adaptations. Skin color,
Environment and body proportions: Bergman’s rule, Allen’s rule, nasal index; adaptations to diet: lactase
persistence, thrifty genotypes, diabetes, environment of evolutionary adaptivness.