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Deviations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Violations of the Hardy–Weinberg assumptions can cause deviations from
expectation. How this affects the population depends on the assumptions that
are violated. Generally, deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
denotes the evolution of a species.
1. Random mating
The HWP states the population will have the given genotypic frequencies
(called Hardy-Weinberg proportions) after a single generation of random
mating within the population. When violations of this provision occur, the
population will not have Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Three such violations
2.Inbreeding - which causes an increase in homozygosity for all genes.
3.Assortative mating - which causes an increase in homozygosity only for
those genes involved in the trait that is assortatively mated (and genes in
linkage disequilibrium with them).
4.Small population size, which causes a random change in genotypic
frequencies, particularly if the population is very small. This is due to a
sampling effect, and is called genetic drift.
The remaining assumptions effect the allele frequencies, but do not, in
themselves, effect random mating. If a population violates one of these, the
population will continue to have Hardy-Weinberg proportions each
generation, but the allele frequencies will change with that force.
Selection, in general, causes allele frequencies to change, often quite
rapidly. While directional selection eventually leads to the loss of all alleles
except the favored one, some forms of selection, such as balancing selection,
lead to equilibrium without loss of alleles.
Mutation will have a very subtle effect on allele frequencies. Mutation rates
are of the order 10−4 to 10−8, and the change in allele frequency will be, at
most, the same order. Recurrent mutation will maintain alleles in the
population, even if there is strong selection against them.
Migration genetically links two or more populations together. In general,
allele frequencies will become more homogeneous among the populations.
Some models for migration inherently include nonrandom mating (Wahlund
effect ).