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* * Aggression - refers to behavior between members of the same species that is intended to cause humiliation, pain, or harm. -behavior that is intended to inflict harm on another person and it can be physical, mental or verbal aggression. Violence -is an extreme form of aggression, such as assault, rape or murder. -Violence has many causes, including frustration, exposure to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood and a tendency to see other people's actions as hostile even when they're not. Aggression accompanied by act of violence such as criminal violent, sexual assault, domestic violence, family violence, adolescent violence and collective violence. Type of aggression There are many different type of behavior that fit the definition of aggression, the major two such as, -Reactive relational aggression •includes hostile, affective, retaliatory s used in response to feeling attacked, threatened, or mad. •It is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger towards a particular target such as person or situation. -Instrumental relational aggression • includes predatory, goal-oriented is used in order for an individual to get what they want. • Instrument aggression is molded by environmental reward and social learning. • In some situation, instrumental relational aggression derived from self protection and defense, and is seen in situation such as war where individuals are commanded to act violently by superior. Factor that influence aggression -Biological factor Freud and Lorenz believed that aggression is an instinct that must be out. Aggression is directed to and often originates from outside stimuli, but has a very distinct internal character. - Cultural influences aggression are a cross culturally variable for example war among different community and culture may be accentuated due to scene resources. -Individual differences also influence aggression because aggressiveness is a trait, relatively stable over time and partly due to hereditary factors. - Environmental factors have many sources of aggression available in the social and physical environment, whereby the environment offers a lot cues and stimulus that may trigger aggressive behavior among people are in aggression as a response to aggression, physical pain, frustration and so on. - Economic frustration can contribute to social upheavals. -Media is a source for aggressive cues and the weapons effect. Behaviors like aggression may be partially learned by watching and imitating the behavior of others. In addition there is a smaller effect of violent video games on aggression than has been found with television violence on aggression. Theoretical approach Psychoanalytic theory of aggression -Freud hypothesized that aggressive behavior is principally the result of an innate motives mainly the Eros and Thanatos. -Eros is an innate drives for physical pleasure such as sexual, while Thanatos refer to innate drives leading to destruction and violence. -The inborn destructive tendency creates a drive state that must be reduce. Confronting with such situation, the person therefore engages in aggressive behavior that serves to satisfy and temporarily eliminate the uncomfortable drive state. Evolutionary perspective -Based on the survival instinct. According to Konrad Lorenz (1996), all human being have the fighting instinct, example an innate biological basis. -Aggression may be accentuated if taken together with alcohol, low blood sugar levels or if injected with male hormones. Social learning perspective - According to the operant conditioning approach, aggressive behavior develops as result of a pattern of positive and negative reinforcements, and from there they learn how to behave and act according to their social and culture context. - 4 fundamental factor : • learning is motivated by drive • learning is given direction • guidance by cues • learning involves a response reinforcement. and learning constitutes Review from Journal Article Title: Emotion regulation and aggression (Roberton, T., Daffern, M., Bucks,R.,S., emotion regulation and aggression, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2011, doi:10.1016/ j.avb.2011.09.006) -about impact of deliberate emotion regulation on aggression, by integrating findings from recent emotion regulation research with a contemporary model of aggressive behavior, the General Aggression Model. i) Under-regulate anger and other emotions may be more likely to behave aggressively in an attempt to repair, terminate, or avoid uncomfortable emotional states ii) Over-regulation of emotion may lead to aggressive behavior by increasing negative effect, reducing inhibitions against aggression, compromising decision making processes, diminishing social networks, increasing physiological arousal and hindering the resolution of difficult situations. - 3 skills that can underlie deliberate emotion regulation such as emotional awareness, emotional acceptance and proficiency in a variety of emotion regulation strategies.