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- refers to behavior between members of the same species
that is intended to cause humiliation, pain, or harm.
-behavior that is intended to inflict harm on another person
and it can be physical, mental or verbal aggression.
an extreme form of aggression, such as assault, rape or
has many causes, including frustration, exposure
to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood and
a tendency to see other people's actions as hostile even
when they're not.
Aggression accompanied by act of violence such as criminal
violent, sexual assault, domestic violence, family violence,
adolescent violence and collective violence.
Type of aggression
There are many different type of behavior that fit the definition
of aggression, the major two such as,
-Reactive relational aggression
•includes hostile, affective, retaliatory
s used in response to
feeling attacked, threatened, or mad.
is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger
towards a particular target such as person or situation.
-Instrumental relational aggression
• includes predatory, goal-oriented
is used in order for an
individual to get what they want.
• Instrument aggression is molded by environmental reward and
social learning.
• In
some situation, instrumental relational aggression derived
from self protection and defense, and is seen in situation such
as war where individuals are commanded to act violently by
Factor that influence aggression
-Biological factor
Freud and Lorenz believed that aggression is an instinct that must
be out. Aggression is directed to and often originates from outside
stimuli, but has a very distinct internal character.
- Cultural influences
aggression are a cross culturally variable for example war among
different community and culture may be accentuated due to scene
-Individual differences
also influence aggression because aggressiveness is a trait,
relatively stable over time and partly due to hereditary factors.
- Environmental factors
have many sources of aggression available in the social and
physical environment, whereby the environment offers a lot cues
and stimulus that may trigger aggressive behavior among people
are in aggression as a response to aggression, physical pain,
frustration and so on.
- Economic frustration can contribute to social upheavals.
is a source for aggressive cues and the weapons effect.
Behaviors like aggression may be partially learned by watching
and imitating the behavior of others.
In addition there is a smaller effect of violent video games on
aggression than has been found with television violence on
Theoretical approach
Psychoanalytic theory of aggression
hypothesized that aggressive behavior is principally the
result of an innate motives mainly the Eros and Thanatos.
-Eros is an innate drives for physical pleasure such as sexual, while
Thanatos refer to innate drives leading to destruction and violence.
-The inborn destructive tendency creates a drive state that must be
reduce. Confronting with such situation, the person therefore
engages in aggressive behavior that serves to satisfy and
temporarily eliminate the uncomfortable drive state.
Evolutionary perspective
on the survival instinct. According to Konrad Lorenz
(1996), all human being have the fighting instinct, example an
innate biological basis.
may be accentuated if taken together with alcohol,
low blood sugar levels or if injected with male hormones.
Social learning perspective
- According to the operant conditioning approach, aggressive
behavior develops as result of a pattern of positive and negative
reinforcements, and from there they learn how to behave and
act according to their social and culture context.
- 4 fundamental factor :
• learning is motivated by drive
• learning is given direction
• guidance by cues
• learning involves a response
Review from Journal Article
Title: Emotion regulation and aggression
(Roberton, T., Daffern, M., Bucks,R.,S., emotion regulation and aggression,
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2011, doi:10.1016/ j.avb.2011.09.006)
-about impact of deliberate emotion regulation on aggression, by
integrating findings from recent emotion regulation research with
a contemporary model of aggressive behavior, the General
Aggression Model.
i) Under-regulate anger and other emotions may be more likely
to behave aggressively in an attempt to repair, terminate, or
avoid uncomfortable emotional states
ii) Over-regulation of emotion may lead to aggressive behavior
by increasing negative effect, reducing inhibitions against
diminishing social networks, increasing physiological arousal
and hindering the resolution of difficult situations.
- 3 skills that can underlie deliberate emotion regulation such
as emotional awareness, emotional acceptance and proficiency
in a variety of emotion regulation strategies.