Integrative Model of Rumination - Open Research Exeter
... rumination-as-a-habit will be moderated by the presence or absence of the other condition. Being in
an ongoing difficult situation will not necessarily lead to habitual depressive rumination: Ongoing
difficulties may lead to episodes of state rumination as a normal and often adaptive response to
Tilburg University Crying, catharsis, and health
... should be aware that crying proneness may be affected by health status, rather than the
other way around. Examples are the increased crying proneness of depressed people or
patients with certain neurological disorders (cerebrovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis,
etc.; see for a review Shaibani et ...
Guilt for Non
... If foreseen guilt prevents harm and absence of harm prevents possible retaliation and/or loss of reputation, then it
would seem that a priori guilt would be evolutionarily advantageous. A posteriori guilt, on the other hand, would be
evolutionarily advantageous because conducive to increased amount/ ...
NORMATIVE AND PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AVERSIVE
... full complexity of anxiety disorders. To address this limitation, contemporary learning theories
have emerged, which acknowledge organismic factors that affect conditioning in its role in the
etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, extant research on learning processes
and associated ...
Social Referencing as a Learned Process
... history than Homo sapiens, to which Campos et al. generalized the purported findings of
those studies. Second, none of the three studies dealt in macaques with infant and post infant
reactions to maternal expressive facial reactioris~ much less in the humans to which Campos
et al. generalized the pu ...
... State Anxiety. The type of transitory anxiety you
normally experience when exposed to a threatening
A temporary increase in the level of anxiety occurs in
response to situations perceived as potentially dangerous.
... Three important meanings of self-knowledge:
for religious person self-knowledge is a way to unite with
God through the knowledge of a Divine origin in himself;
on the facile psychological level self-knowledge is as
means of the fullest usage of own abilities, skills in life
and activities or as ...
... and Shoemaker. They propose that learned emotionality and
instrumental learning are involved in the acquistion of
stuttering and its associated behaviors.28 This two factor
theory is explained concisely in the following statement:
(1) Stuttering is considered the disintegration
of speech fluency tha ...
Influence of Reinforcement Contingencies and Cognitive Styles on
... environmental psychology that was proposed by Mehrabian and Russell
(1974; also see Mehrabian, 1980), who made a case for pleasure, arousal, and
dominance being the basic dimensions of emotion of which other emotional
states are derivative (Foxall, 2005).
This work has been conducted in two cultural ...
effect of emotional state on eyeblink classical conditioning in
... probes the unconditioned eyeblink reflex to an aversive stimulus is augmented
when the subject is in an emotionally negative state comparing to the positive
state. The present study examines how the emotional state affects classically
conditioned eyeblink to a tone. In startle probes the performance ...
Emotion - SchoolRack
... The biological mechanisms at work behind our
• The reticular formation- strategically located in the
brain stem, works with the thalamus and the
amygdala to monitor incoming information.
• If it detects a potential threat, the reticular formation sets off
a cascade of automatic res ...
Facial Expression Recognition, Fear Conditioning, and Startle
... Graeme Fairchild, Yvette Stobbe, Stephanie H.M. van Goozen, Andrew J. Calder, and Ian M. Goodyer
Background: Recent behavioral and psychophysiological studies have provided converging evidence for emotional dysfunction in
conduct disorder (CD). Most of these studies focused on male subjects and litt ...
Extended Definition of Anger
... Anger is engendered by some sort of stimulus, usually in the
present but possibly recalled from memory. It is normally a conscious
feeling accompanied by physical discomfort and tension, and may be
outwardly expressed by glaring, gritting of teeth, clenching of the fists,
or even quaking of the bod ...
Anxiety Disorders - Partners for Youth with Disabilities
... and/or terrifying event. People with PTSD often have lasting and frightening thoughts and memories of
the event and tend to be emotionally numb.
Social Anxiety Disorder: Social anxiety disorder involves overwhelming worry and self-consciousness
about everyday social situations. The worry often cente ...
Emotional Abuse - Childs Cry For Help
... a history of more effective interventions for domestic violence issues (psychological/emotional and physical)
such as The Netherlands. Such Domestic Violence Courts would focus on establishing temporary protective
strategies such as, removal of the offender from the home and/or restraining orders, w ...
Anxiety Disorders - Partners for Youth with Disabilities
... Specific Phobias: A specific phobia is an intense fear of a specific object or situation. This level of fear is
usually inappropriate to the situation and may cause the person to avoid common, everyday situations.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: This disorder involves excessive unrealistic worry and ...
Stress Management for Lawyers: An Ounce of Prevention
... tive times, our fight-or-flight response was
very useful on a day-to-day basis, and, in certain contexts, it still is. In our civilized world,
however, the repeated activation of this elaborate physiological function in response to
daily stresses is, simply put, overkill.
Most of us are not in true ...
Modifying interpretations among individuals high in anxiety sensitivity
... (2007) used a modiﬁcation of the Mathews and Mackintosh (2000)
paradigm in which the training scenarios were presented aurally to a
sample high in social anxiety symptoms. The authors found that
Positive training led to more positive interpretations, relative to the
Control condition (which included ...
Chapter Six: Behavior Therapy
... On a physical level, there is no qualitative difference between anger and fear only a difference in how
one interprets the physical state relative to the context in which it occurs.
Differentiation occurs through respondent learning in which there is an association formed
between an eliciting event, ...
... “personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of
those psychophysical systems that determine her/his unique
adjustment to her/his environment”. (Allport, 1948)
“an individual’s personality then is his unique patterns of traits
----- A trait is any distinguishable, relatively enduring ...
-Refers to behavior between members of the same species
that is intended to cause humiliation, pain, or harm.
-Behavior that is intended to inflict harm on another person
and it can be physical, mental or verbal aggression.
-Intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or
AGGRESSION & VIOLENCE
... Behaviors like aggression may be partially learned by watching
and imitating the behavior of others.
In addition there is a smaller effect of violent video games on
aggression than has been found with television violence on
Park et al. (2001) Neuropsychologia
... • Emotional learning and memory
• Neural circuit associated with fear learning and memory
SP however, had declarative memory for the experimental
task and reported that she understood the association
between the blue square and the electrical shock, and
anticipated being shocked when shown the blue ...
PowerPoint Slides - Academic Csuohio
... content, then asked to select words or phrases
that best describe their reactions to the content.
Fright reactions are measured through
physiological responses such as a person’s heart
Emotional self-regulation or regulation of emotion is the ability to respond to the ongoing demands of experience with the range of emotions in a manner that is socially tolerable and sufficiently flexible to permit spontaneous reactions as well as the ability to delay spontaneous reactions as needed. It can also be defined as extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions. Emotion self-regulation belongs to the broader set of emotion-regulation processes, which includes the regulation of one's own feelings and the regulation of other people's feelings.Emotional regulation is a complex process that involves initiating, inhibiting, or modulating one's state or behavior in a given situation – for example the subjective experience (feelings), cognitive responses (thoughts), emotion-related physiological responses (for example heart rate or hormonal activity), and emotion-related behavior (bodily actions or expressions). Functionally, emotional regulation can also refer to processes such as the tendency to focus one's attention to a task and the ability to suppress inappropriate behavior under instruction. Emotional regulation is a highly significant function in human life.Every day, people are continually exposed to a wide variety of potentially arousing stimuli. Inappropriate, extreme or unchecked emotional reactions to such stimuli could impede functional fit within society; therefore, people must engage in some form of emotion regulation almost all of the time. Generally speaking, emotional dysregulation has been defined as difficulties in controlling the influence of emotional arousal on the organization and quality of thoughts, actions, and interactions. Individuals who are emotionally dysregulated exhibit patterns of responding in which there is a mismatch between their goals, responses, and/or modes of expression, and the demands of the social environment. For example, there is a significant association between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of depression, anxiety, eating pathology, and substance abuse. Higher levels of emotion regulation are likely to be related to both high levels of social competence and the expression of socially appropriate emotions.