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Psychology of Personality & Human Dynamics
Week 11
[email protected]/012-2841844
-Refers to behavior between members of the same species
that is intended to cause humiliation, pain, or harm.
-Behavior that is intended to inflict harm on another person
and it can be physical, mental or verbal aggression.
-Intentional behavior aimed at causing either physical or
psychological pain to another person.
-Seen as blaming the victim, who deserves the negative
events to which he or she has been subjected.
-An extreme form of aggression, such as assault, rape or
-Violence has many causes, including frustration, exposure
to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood and
a tendency to see other people's actions as hostile even
when they're not.
Different forms of aggression accompanied by different act of
violence such as criminal violent (injure people), sexual assault
(rape and rape attempt), domestic violence (family abuse),
adolescent violence (rape, attack teacher, fight, vandalism) and
collective violence (terrorists).
1. Reactive relational aggression
• Includes hostile, affective, retaliatory
is used in
response to feeling attacked, threatened, or mad.
Simply anger and aimed to bring injury or harm to
deserved people that they think.
It is an act of aggression stemming from feelings of
anger towards a particular target such as person or
Since provoked by pain or upset, anything that increase
emotional arousal increases likelihood of hostile
Hostile impulses are likely to lead to fatal actions if
accompanied by facilitating stimuli, e.g. weapons.
2. Instrumental relational aggression
• Includes predatory, goal-oriented is used in order for an
individual to get what they want, not necessary caused by
anger or emotion.
• Molded by environmental reward and social learning.
• Goaled to gain some desired awards, e.g. money
valuable goods.
• In
some situation, instrumental relational aggression
derived from self protection and defense, and is seen in
situation such as war where individuals are commanded to
act violently by superior.
Biological factor
Freud and Lorenz believed that aggression is an instinct that
must be out. Aggression is directed to and often originates
from outside stimuli, but has a very distinct internal
Cultural influences
Aggression is a cross-culturally variable, for example war
among different community(or tribes) and culture may be
accentuated due to scarce resources.
Individual Differences
Also influence aggression because aggressiveness is a trait,
relatively stable over time and partly due to hereditary factors.
Physiologically, it may be influenced by specific brain structures
and may be affected by hormones, alcohol or drugs.
Environmental Factors
Have many sources of aggression available in the social and
physical environment, whereby the environment offers a lot
cues and stimulus that may trigger aggressive behavior among
people, e.g. aggression as a response to aggression, physical
pain, heat, frustration, those without reasonable explanations,
arousal, alcohol, etc.
4(a) Economic frustration
• Can contribute to social upheavals.
• J-curve theory: violent social revolutions are most likely to occur
when a prolonged period of economic development is followed by
a brief period of economic reversal.
4(b) Media
• Source for aggressive cues and the weapons effect.
• Behaviors like aggression may be partially learned by watching and
imitating the behavior of others.
• A smaller effect of violent video games on aggression than has
been found with television violence on aggression.
• Evidence of strong causal relationship between children’s viewing
violent TV program and behaving aggressively.
• Viewing violent pornography increase aggression, especially lead
men to hold negative attitudes toward women and to endorse rape
1. Psychoanalytic Theory of Aggression
-Freud hypothesized that aggressive behavior
is principally the
result of an innate motives mainly the Eros and Thanatos.
-Eros is an innate drives for physical pleasure such as sexual,
while Thanatos refer to innate drives leading to destruction and
-The inborn destructive tendency creates a drive state that must
be reduce. Confronting with such situation, the person therefore
engages in aggressive behavior that serves to satisfy and
temporarily eliminate the uncomfortable drive state.
-Aggression resulting from the death instinct may be directed
inward (lead to feelings of worthlessness and depression, e.g.
suicide) or outward (lead to hostility toward others).
-Specific aggressive behavior patterns are learned experiences
and learning processes during childhood, but biological elements
is still underlying basis for aggression.
2. Evolutionary perspective
-Based on the survival instinct.
According to Konrad Lorenz
(1996), all human being have the fighting instinct, i.e. an
innate biological basis.
roots of human aggression lie in the defensive aggression
seen in many animal species(Albert et al.,1993; Rushton, 1997).
-Aggression may be accentuated if taken together with alcohol,
low blood sugar levels or if injected with male hormones.
Social learning perspective
- Includes people learn from their experience, people thought they will
be rewarded for aggressive behavior, and people encouraged to be
aggressive due to specific social condition.
- According to the operant conditioning approach, aggressive behavior
develops as result of a pattern of positive and negative reinforcements,
and from there they learn how to behave and act according to their
social and culture context.
- 4 fundamental factor :
• Learning is motivated by drive
• Learning is given direction and guidance by cues
• Learning involves a response
• Learning constitutes reinforcement
- Most behavior is learned by observing people who serves as model and
information (parent, teacher, etc.). Hence, children who exposed to
domestic violence or criminal family are most likely to be violent
adult. (Keenan & Shaw, 1994; O’ Keffe, 1994)
Review from Journal Article
Title: Emotion regulation and aggression
(Roberton, T., Daffern, M., Bucks,R.,S., emotion regulation and aggression,
Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2011, doi:10.1016/ j.avb.2011.09.006)
-About impact of deliberate emotion regulation on aggression, by
integrating findings from recent emotion regulation research with
a contemporary model of aggressive behavior, the General
Aggression Model.
i) Under-regulate anger and other emotions may be more likely
to behave aggressively in an attempt to repair, terminate, or
avoid uncomfortable emotional states
ii) Over-regulation of emotion may lead to aggressive behavior
by increasing negative effect, reducing inhibitions against
diminishing social networks, increasing physiological arousal
and hindering the resolution of difficult situations.
- 3 skills that can underlie deliberate emotion regulation such
as emotional awareness, emotional acceptance and proficiency
in a variety of emotion regulation strategies.
Increase penalties for violence
Reduce violence on television
Reduce children’s exposure to violence
Reduce alcohol and drug use
Reduce the availability of cues for aggression
Directly instruct youth & adults to avoid violence
Emphasize the ‘power of positive thinking’
Emphasize antiviolence norms
Establish school and community anti-violence programs
Reduce unemployment and stabilize employment
Malaysian Cases:
Teach and practice the religion
Stop showing wrestling program at TV’s
Ensure that children and adolescent perform a good solat/
prayer for the Muslim and good prayer for the others
according to own religious teaching
Teach our children Rukun Negara
Among the campaign implemented by the government
Kempen masyarakat penyayang
Kempen Budi Bahasa
Kempen Bersih, Cekap dan Amanah
Penubuhan Jabatan Perpaduan Negara
Interreligous Interfaith Council