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Transcript
Social Relations
Prejudice
•
unjustifiable and usually negative
attitude toward a group of people
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Made up of beliefs (stereotypes), emotions,
& actions (discrimination)
Modern prejudice is often both subtle &
automatic/unconscious
Overt prejudice still exists (i.e. gays,
immigrants, and minorities)
Social roots:
Prejudice
•
Social inequalities
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Allport (1954) – haves justify have-nots as
deserving of their situation
In-group vs. out-group
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Turner (1987) & Hogg (1996) – social identity
In-group bias – strong affection for group (often
accompanied by discrimination of out-groups)
Prejudice
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Emotional roots
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Death, fear, anger effect prejudice attitudes
Scapegoat theory – someone to blame
Cognitive roots
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Categorizing – over generalize (stereotype)
Vivid cases – over estimate number
Just-World Phenomenon – get what you deserve
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Blame the victim – ex. Provocative dressers deserve to get
harassed
Hind-sight bias
Aggression
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Biology of Aggression
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Genetic influence
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Animals bred for aggressiveness
Men are more aggressive (potential y chromosome link)
Neural influence
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Neural networks for aggression, not one part of brain
Frontal lobe inhibits aggression
Biochemical influence
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Hormones (testosterone) effect aggression levels
Alcohol raises aggression
Aggression
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Psychology of aggression
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Aversive events
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Frustration-aggression principle – frustration leads to
anger which leads aggression
Aggression is rewarding
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Getting want you want reinforces aggressive behavior
Aggression replacement – reward non-aggressive
behaviors instead of punishing undesirable behaviors
Observing models
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Ex. Sexually explicit material with violence increases
acceptance of violent sexual behavior
Social script – media influence
•
Description of how to act in certain situations ( i.e.
playbook for dating, partying, drug use, etc.)
Aggression
•
Video games
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Don’t cause aggressive behavior but may
prime aggressive behavior
Research doesn’t prove catharsis effect
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•
role playing violent games doesn’t release
aggression but increases violent tendency
A
Conflict
A
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+5
+5
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B
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B
+5
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Social Traps – pursuing what is best for
you in a conflict and getting caught in
destructive behavior
– Social matrix trap game
– Promoting cooperation with self-interest
seems best
– Role of regulations, communication and
awareness of responsibility
Conflict
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Enemy perceptions
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Mirror-image perception – as we see them they see
us
Believe that the other person in a conflict is shady,
untrustworthy, conniving, etc.
Perceptions can and do change as conflicts change
What strategies would you suggest for conflict
resolution?
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How do different situations effect how you might
feel?
Attraction
•
Psychology of attraction
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Proximity – you like things that you have been
around the longest
Mere exposure effect – the more you are exposed
to something new the more LIKELY you are to
enjoy it
Ex. children with new foods, TV shows, etc.
How does this relate to racism in dominantly white
areas?
Difficulties of long distance relationships
How can you like something you’ve never been
exposed to
Attraction
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Physical Attractiveness
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Appearance is critical to attraction
First impressions – before you ever hear them
speak you make judgments
Advertisers often pair their products with attractive
people (higher order conditioning). Why?
Beauty is a cultural standard not a universal social
norm
Youth seems to be attractive for women in most
cultures
What are differences in cultural attractiveness?
Effects of attractiveness on liking and vice versa
Attraction
•
Similarity
–
We seem to prefer people/things that are similar to
ourselves
Opposites attract doesn’t hold true in research!
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Reward attraction theory – like relationships that the
rewards outweigh the costs
Romantic love
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Passionate love – physical arousal
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Butterflies when you meet the “one”
Companionate love – more than just passionate
love
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Long-term affection
Role of equity & self-disclosure
Altruism
• Doing good for good sake
• Bystander intervention
• Social exchange
– Will it help me?
• Reciprocity
– Help those who help us
– Hurt?
• Social-responsibility
– Parents & kids, teachers & students, etc.
Peacemaking
• Superordinate goals
– Common goals overcome differences
• Communication
• Conciliation
– Small gestures
Review for Social Psychology
• Attribution
– Theory & error
• Attitudes & Actions
– Cognitive dissonance
• Conformity &
Obedience
– Asch & Zimbardo
– Milgram
• Group Influence
• Social Relations
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Prejudice
Aggression
Conflict
Attraction
Altruism
Peacemaking