Aggression, Attraction, and Conflict Resolution Agenda 1. Bellringer: Video game discussion (10) 2. Aggression and Conflict (15) 3. Farmville Murder Article (10) 4. Aggression Test (10) 5. Dollar Auction (10) 6. Information to know: - First Test on Chapters 1 and 18 will be on October 1st. - Study guide will be posted on Friday, you will receive a print version in class. - Reading Quiz for Chapter 18 will be on Friday. You may use Chapter outline and Notes for this assessment. Bellringer • Do you think watching violent movies, playing violent video games, or listening to violent lyrics in music make people violent? • How do you deal with frustration or aggression? Aggression • Aggression can be any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. • It may be done reactively out of hostility or proactively as a calculated means to an end. Research shows that aggressive behavior emerges from the interaction of biology and experience. 4 The science of aggression • Aggressive personalities may have genetic components • Aggression can come from multiple places in the brain – it is not found in one central location • Higher levels of testosterone increases aggressive behaviors Psychology of aggression • Frustration-aggression principle: frustration creates anger. If you are blocked from a certain goal by something that seems unfair or frustrating you might feel some aggression. • Example: Vending machine eats your money or the paper you spent all night working on didn’t save. Environment Even environmental temperature can lead to aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with the temperature in Houston. 7 Learning that Aggression is Rewarding When aggression leads to desired outcomes, one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in both animals and humans. Cultures that favor violence breed violence. Scotch-Irish settlers in the South had more violent tendencies than their Puritan, Quaker, & Dutch counterparts in the Northeast of the U.S. 8 Observing Models of Aggression Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of Rand X-rated movies. 9 Acquiring Social Scripts Why might violent music and games be a problem? • The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. • When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on social scripts they have seen. If social scripts are violent in nature, people may act them out. 10 Summary of Aggression 11 Conflict • We all face conflict at times – Its caused by an incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas • Can have destructive results such as: – Social traps: a situation in which conflicting parties pursue their own goals causing destructive outcomes – no positive results – Example: You may not recycle all the time, but because so many people don’t we have a huge pollution problem Blame the Enemy • Many times when in conflict with another person or group, humans tend to demonize the other side. • The fundamental attribution error is usually at play – What is the fundamental attribution error? Attraction The Psychology of Attraction 1. Proximity: Geographic nearness is a powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases their attraction (mere exposure effect). Rex USA A rare white penguin born in a zoo was accepted after 3 weeks by other penguins just due to proximity. 15 Psychology of Attraction 2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity affords contact, the next most important thing in attraction is physical appearance. 16 Psychology of Attraction 3. Similarity: Similar views among individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen. Similarity breeds content! 17 Romantic Love • Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. • Companionate Love: A deep, affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives we are closely apart of for a long period of time. 18 Altruism • An unselfish regard for the welfare of others. • Equity: A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give. • Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. 19 Bystander Effect • Tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. • Ex. Kitty Genovese Case 20 Cooperation Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works • Superordinate Goals are shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. Communication and understanding developed through talking to one another. Sometimes it is mediated by a third party. 21 Communication • Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. • One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party. (give and take) 22 Closure • Think of three things you can do to avoid conflict and conformity?