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Aggression, Attraction, and
Conflict Resolution
1. Bellringer: Video game discussion (10)
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6. Information to know:
- First Test on Chapters 1 and 18 will be on October 1st.
- Study guide will be posted on Friday, you will receive a
print version in class.
- Reading Quiz for Chapter 18 will be on Friday. You may
use Chapter outline and Notes for this assessment.
• Do you think watching violent movies, playing
violent video games, or listening to violent
lyrics in music make people violent?
• How do you deal with frustration or
• Aggression can be any physical or verbal
behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
• It may be done reactively out of hostility
or proactively as a calculated means to an
Research shows that aggressive behavior
emerges from the interaction of biology and
The science of aggression
• Aggressive personalities may have genetic
• Aggression can come from multiple places in
the brain – it is not found in one central
• Higher levels of testosterone increases
aggressive behaviors
Psychology of aggression
• Frustration-aggression principle: frustration
creates anger. If you are blocked from a
certain goal by something that seems unfair
or frustrating you might feel some aggression.
• Example: Vending machine eats your money
or the paper you spent all night working on
didn’t save.
Even environmental temperature can lead to
aggressive acts. Murders and rapes increased with the
temperature in Houston.
Learning that Aggression is Rewarding
When aggression leads to desired outcomes,
one learns to be aggressive. This is shown in
both animals and humans.
Cultures that favor violence breed violence.
Scotch-Irish settlers in the South had more
violent tendencies than their Puritan, Quaker,
& Dutch counterparts in the Northeast of the
Observing Models of Aggression
Sexually coercive men
are promiscuous and
hostile in their
relationships with
This coerciveness has
increased due to
television viewing of Rand X-rated movies.
Acquiring Social Scripts
Why might violent music and games be a
• The media portrays social scripts and
generates mental tapes in the minds of the
• When confronted with new situations
individuals may rely on social scripts they have
seen. If social scripts are violent in nature,
people may act them out.
Summary of Aggression
• We all face conflict at times
– Its caused by an incompatibility of actions, goals
or ideas
• Can have destructive results such as:
– Social traps: a situation in which conflicting
parties pursue their own goals causing destructive
outcomes – no positive results
– Example: You may not recycle all the time, but
because so many people don’t we have a huge
pollution problem
Blame the Enemy
• Many times when in conflict with another
person or group, humans tend to demonize
the other side.
• The fundamental attribution error is usually
at play
– What is the fundamental attribution error?
The Psychology of Attraction
1. Proximity: Geographic nearness is a
powerful predictor of friendship. Repeated
exposure to novel stimuli increases their
attraction (mere exposure effect).
A rare white penguin born
in a zoo was accepted after
3 weeks by other penguins
just due to proximity.
Psychology of Attraction
2. Physical Attractiveness: Once proximity
affords contact, the next most important
thing in attraction is physical appearance.
Psychology of Attraction
3. Similarity: Similar views among
individuals causes the bond of
attraction to strengthen.
Similarity breeds content!
Romantic Love
• Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense
positive absorption in another, usually
present at the beginning of a love
• Companionate Love: A deep, affectionate
attachment we feel for those with whom our
lives we are closely apart of for a long period
of time.
• An unselfish regard for the welfare of
• Equity: A condition in which people receive
from a relationship in proportion to what
they give.
• Self-Disclosure: Revealing intimate aspects of
oneself to others.
Bystander Effect
• Tendency of any
given bystander to
be less likely to give
aid if other
bystanders are
• Ex. Kitty Genovese
Syracuse Newspapers/ The Image Works
• Superordinate Goals are shared goals that
override differences among people and require
their cooperation.
Communication and understanding developed
through talking to one another. Sometimes it is
mediated by a third party.
• Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in
Tension-Reduction (GRIT): This is a strategy
designed to decrease international
• One side recognizes mutual interests and
initiates a small conciliatory act that opens
the door for reciprocation by the other
party. (give and take)
• Think of three things you can
do to avoid conflict and