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Chapter 9 LEARNING: Principals and Applications Learning: a relevantly permanent change in behavior that results from experience. Not all behaviors are learned the same way: Dentist Pain Dentist Parents comforts FEAR FEAR NEVER BEEN TO THE DENTIST Dentist Reaction of others FEAR THREE BASIC TYPES OF LEARNING • Classical Conditioning- response to a stimulus • Operant Conditioning- rewards behavior • Modeling- watching others CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Dentist Pain FEAR OPERANT CONDITIONING Dentist Pain Child shows FEAR Parent comforts child MODELING NEVER BEEN TO THE DENTIST Dentist Reaction of others FEAR CLASSICAL CONDITIONING A Learning Proceedure that causes a subject to learn a response to a stimulus that normally does not cause that response. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IVAN PAVLOV- scientist studying digestion using dogs as subjects… Became one of the scientists of note studying Behaviorism Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment Classical Conditioning Components Neutral Stimulus (NS)- Has nothing to do with a response before conditioning Tuning Fork/ Bell Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- Something that will lead to a predictable response Food Unconditioned Response (UCR)- Something that occurs naturally Salivation Ivan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment To During: Before Conditioning back back DuringIvan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment To After: The bell starts to become the Conditioned Stimulus back The Food remains an Unconditioned Stimulus back The dog’s salivation is starting to be controlled by the sound of the bell but not completely back AfterIvan Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiment Done Conditioned Stimulus back Food Food remains an Unconditioned Stimulus: Will always cause a natural Uncontrolled response back The dog’s salivation now becomes the Conditioned Response to the ringing bell. back After Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- tuning fork/ Bell Conditioned Response (CR)- Salivation Generalization: Discrimination: only or = CR = CR Extinction: CR does not happen due to lack of UCS Spontaneous Recovery: CR returns after Ucs returns for awhile Taste Aversions Becoming ill after eating and never being Able to eat that food again..just the sight makes you sick!!!!! Classical Conditioning Acquisition of behavior Generalization Extinction Discrimination Read case study on page 249 and answer the following Questions: Little Albert • #1 Did the results of the experiment support the hypothesis……. • #2 How did Albert’s response become generalized • #3 How were the principles of classical conditioning used to reduce Peter’s fear of rabbits • # 4 Would this work on an adult? Hypothesis #1 Did the results of the experiment support the hypothesis……. • Most human behaviors and emotional reactions are built up of conditioned responses. 2 How did Albert’s response become generalized • #3 How were the principles of classical conditioning used to reduce Peter’s fear of rabbits? • Would this work on an adult? • Do you think this experiement was immoral? Operant Conditio ning OPERANT CONDITIONING Learning from consequences of behavior •Stray dog getting fed in a neighborhood •Paying bills on time- good credit, don’t lose house •Getting attention for misbehaving- individual doesn’t care what type of attention they get as long as they get it Cat Flushing the Toilet Video Differences between Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical- Stimulus is provided to condition behavior Operant- Behavior results from reward or punishment Psychologist famous for experiments in OPERANT Conditioning Skinner determined that rewards and punishments Shape behavior lever Rat An animal placed inside the box is rewarded with a small bit of food each time it makes the desired response, such as pressing a lever or pecking a key. A device outside the box records the animal's responses. Journal Entry #4 • Describe a time in your life when you learned how to do something. Describe the process that you went through to learn. After you describe the learning event determine which type of learning it was: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, or a combination of the above. Reinforcement A stimulus or event that follows a behavior that either reinforces or discourages a behavior • Important factor in operant conditioning is timing and frequency of reinforcement • Partial schedule- when positive reinforcement occurs immediately but not every time • Skinner learned of the effectiveness of partial reinforcement when the “Skinner Box” broke • it is generally a more stable and longer lasting behavior 4 Schedules of Reinforcement • • • • Fixed RatioVariable RatioFixed Interval-. Variable-Interval- Two ways that stimuli can affect our behavior 1. Reinforcement 2. Punishment Reinforcement Stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will continue 2 types: Positive and Negative (Removal) Positive Reinforcement: When something the subject wants is rewarded after the desired response. Example: Receiving a day off after coming to work on time without missing for 9 weeks straight (Removal) Negative Reinforcement: When a painful or unpleasant stimulus is removed It follows and negates (takes away) something unpleasant Example: After successfully completing 15 problems showing your work you get to finish the next 15 with a without it. Two Results of Negative Reinforcement • Avoidance Conditioning Persons behavior has the Persons behavior causes an affect of preventing an unpleasant event to stop. unpleasant situation from happening Child hates liver- Mom serves • Escape Conditioning: liver- Child gags and has fit- Mom removes liver Child will react this way every time food is served it doesn’t like Stretching the truth to avoid hurting someone’s feelings because you have seen them upset before Aversive Control An unpleasant or (aversive) consequence that follows an undesirable behavior 2. Punishment Painful or unpleasant stimulus is applied. Most obvious aversive control method Punishers include but are not limited to: •Spanking •Yelling •Evil eye •Cold shoulder Disadvantages of Aversive Control • Can produce rage, aggression and fear which can lead to other behavior problemchildren who are abused grow up to be abusers…..also abusive to other children • People will learn to avoid the person delivering the aversive stimuli- can cause relationship problems Punishment alone is not an effective way to teach….. Without positive coaching and modeling of acceptable behaviors the child may never learn the correct behavior. Learning Complicated Skills Shaping- process of reinforcement used to sculpt behavior reward each segment of behavior that is in the direction of the desired behavior Response Chains- Combining responses to perform a skill: Each response produces a signal for the next: Hammering a nail: 1. 2. 3. 4. Pick up hammer Pick up nail Position nail Hit nail Response Pattern when you combine response chains: ex: Swimming- arm chain- kicking chainbreathing chain Arm movement chain Kicking chain Swimming Breathing chain Factors that affect Learning 1. Feedback- results from tests or listening to yourself sing 2. Transfer- A skill you have already learned helps or hinders you in learning a new one Positive- helps 3. Practice- Negative- hurts Repetition of a task helps reinforce learning Example: playing a few measures over and over instead of playing the whole song 4.Learned Laziness rewards come with little effort, person never learns to work- when it gets hard they don’t give effort necessary to learn Report Card 1st-6th grade A+ Report Card 7th-8th grade C -/D Report Card 11th grade F 5. Learned Helplessness Negative results no matter how hard learner tries. This condition results when repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief the situation is uncontrollable •Person gives up •Can be a source of depression Social Learning The process of learning from observing and imitating others in ones social environment Learning by reacting to others-------1. Modeling- doing what you see others do i.e., clapping in church 2. Observational learning- Imitating (dancing) 3. Disinhibition- Watching others in a threatening activity without negative consequence might make it easier to try later i.e, going off of the diving board for the first time Cognitive Learning: Learning that focuses on how information is obtained mentally….. Cognitive map: a mental picture which results in Latent Learning Behavior Modification Application of learning principles to change peoples actions and feelings 1. Computer-Assisted Instruction 2. Token Economies 3. Self Control- self discipline- setting up personal rewards and punishments• reading one more page- running 10 more yards, answering one more question • keeping track of behaviors (weight loss, smoking) Behavioral Experiment Ideas Project Ideas: Human Behavior Does smell affect memory? Does color affect memory? Do different smells affect blood pressure? Do different smells affect heart rate? Does being scared affect blood pressure? How do different types of food affect memory? The effects of visual aid on memory. Which helps memory more: visual or audio information? Does the color of print affect reading comprehension? Does music affect concentration? Does music affect mood? Does weather affect mood? Does sleep affect concentration? Does temperature affect concentration? Does physical exercise affect learning ability? Does age affect reaction time? Does temperature affect reaction time? Is reaction time quicker in response to sight or touch? Can people distinguishing low-fat foods from fatty foods? Can males or females determine the direction of sound better? Does laughter affect mood? Does laughter affect blood pressure? Does lying affect blood pressure? Is yawning contagious? Does age affect the average volume at which people listen to music?