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Transcript
CCS Summer School
July 6-11, 2014, Austin, Texas
Carbon Capture and Storage:
Developing countries Context
Joseph Essandoh-Yeddu, PhD
Member, Ghana negotiating party to the UN Climate
Change & Kyoto Protocol
Chief, Planning and Policy
Energy Commission, Ghana
1
Navigating the Climate Change meetings
(late 1970s-1980s: Decade of Climate concerns)
• In 1979 (February) – First World Climate Conference
held in Geneva, sponsored by WMO.
• In 1988, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a
resolution (called 43/53 proposed by Malta) urging “
protection of global climate for present and future
generations of Mankind”.
• In the same year (1988), recognising the possible
relationship GHG and their potential impact on climate,
the WMO and UNEP established the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the scientific body to
look at the Climate Change claims.
2
UNFCCC
• In 1990, the IPCC issued its First Assessment Report
(AR1) which sought to confirm that the threat of
climate change was real.
• The Second World Climate Conference held in the
same year (1990) called for the creation of global
climate change treaty.
• 1n 1991, the UN General Assembly responded by
passing a resolution (45/212) formally commencing
negotiations on a convention on climate change.
• In 1992, UN member countries joined hands in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil to enact and adopt an international
treaty – United Nations Framework Convention for
Climate Change (UNFCCC).
3
International agreement designations
Signature –
signing (by country top
representative)
Ratification - (by constitution via
parliament/congress /cabinet)
charter, accord - Not legally binding
convention, treaty - Legally binding
Protocol – stronger and with definite steps to
follow
4
Kyoto Protocol (Kp)
• The Kyoto Protocol, a more powerful treaty with legally binding
measures was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto Japan, to strengthen
the UNFCCC.
• The Kyoto Protocol commits and sets quantified
reduction/limitation targets of GHG for Annex 1 and Annex 2
(countries undergoing economic transition).
• Aim of the global effort is to reduce the total GHG emissions
then, by at least 5% to pre-1990 levels. 1990 - the ‘baseline’ year
for the Kyoto Protocol.
• Targets were to be achieved over the period 2008–2012 (first
commitment period).
•
The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005.
• Over 160 countries have ratified the UNFCCC and about 80% of
them excluding United States are parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
5
CO2 and Global Warming –
Concentration and Mean Global Temperature levels
Why pre-1990 levels?
6
Estimated Carbon dioxide concentration:
Period: glacial , industrial revolution, up to 1990
By Volume
ppm
Year/Period
500 million years ago
7,660
199-145 million years ago 1,532-1,915
Interglacial
≈160
400,000-50,000 BC (yrs)
≈300
Pre-industrial (<1800)
200
280
1800
300
1961
318
1990
350
By Mass
ppm
Fraction by
Mass
Actual
Mass
X 1015 kg
11,640
2,328-2,910
274 (-8oC)
456 (3oC)
304
425
456
483
532
0.01164
0.00153-0.0029
60.0
7.88-15.00
0.000274
≈1.411
0.000304
0.000425
0.000456
0.000483
0.000532
1.566
2.189
2.348
2.487
2.740
Actual Mass = (mass x 10-6 kg) * (5.15 x 1018 kg)
Source: IPCC, 2007
7
The Climate Treaties
UNFCCC (Rio – 1992)
• The Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto 1997)
COP : Conference of Parties
COP-MOP : Meeting of Parties
• The Convention divides
COPMOP = CMP
countries into 3 main groups
with differing commitments
• Kyoto Protocol groups the
• Annex I Parties – OECD
(Organization of Economic
Parties into two:
Cooperation & Development) in
1992 + countries/Economies in
Transition (EIT) + Russia
• Annex II Parties of OECD
members but not the EIT
parties. Required to provide
financial resources
• Annex B Parties - Annex 1
countries of UNFCCC
• Non – Annex B Parties – All
other countries.
• Non – Annex I Parties – All
other countries.
8
Annexes /appendices
to CLIMATE CHANGE documents
UNFCCC
• Annex 1
• Developed countries +
European economies
in transition
Kyoto Protocol
• Annex A
• Selected Greenhouse
gases.
• Sectors/ source
categories.
• Annex II
• Developed economies
only.
• Annex B
• Annex 1 countries of
UNFCCC legally
committed to reducing
GHG emissions.
9
Groupings
Annex 1
• European Union
• Umbrella Group
• Include Japan, USA,
Australia, Russian Fed
• Environmental
integrity group
– Include Rep of Korea,
Switzerland
• Eastern European
Expect new groups
Non-Annex 1 parties
• G77 and China
• African group
• Least developed countries
group (50)
– Include Lesotho, Zambia,
Sierra Leone
• Congo Basin states
• League of Arab States
• Alliance of Small Island
States (AOSIS) (≈ 43)
• Group of Latin American and
Caribbean States
Expect new groups
10
Strategies to reduce GHG emission of Parties
• Kyoto Protocol
• Joint implementation
Between Annex B countries
• Carbon (Emission) trading
Between Annex B Countries
• CDM – Clean Development Mechanism
Between Developed and developing countries
• Carbon Markets
I. Compliance Market
II. Voluntary Market
11
Carbon Capture and Storage
Developing countries/Parties context
COP 16 CMP6 (Cancun Agreement, 2010) approved CCS in
geologic formations as a CDM project activity.
Most African Parties
openly opposed!
Why the stand ?
Co - benefits
• Deep surface oil and gas
technologies.
• Capacity building
• In adequate information
• Lack of awareness
• Background of most
representatives
Developing countries concerns_JosephGHANA.pdf
12
Thank you,
folks!!
Emails:
[email protected]
[email protected]