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Transcript
Roundtable Discussion
Uzbekistan Fulbright Alumni Association
11/28/2008
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Global Environmental Issues
Robert McCutcheon
Bakhtiyor Mukhammadiev
US Embassy
Presentation outline
Global climate change
Desertification
Biodiversity
Water
U.S.-Uzbekistan cooperation on environmental issues
Climate Change
Definitions
Global warming is the increase in the
average measured temperature of the
Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the
mid-20th century, and its projected
continuation.
Climate change is any long-term significant
change in the “average weather” that a
given region experiences. Average weather
may include average temperature,
precipitation and wind patterns. These
changes can be caused by dynamic
processes on Earth, external forces including
variations in sunlight intensity, and more
recently by human activities.
Global Warming
 According to the
recent IPCC report,
the mean global
surface
temperature has
increased by
0.74OC over the last
100 years (19062005)
 11 of the 12
warmest years
have been
recorded in the
past 12 years
Source: United Nations Environment Program
Causes of Climate Change
Human Activities (IPCC, 2004)
Energy supply, 26%
Industry, 19%
Forestry, 17%
Agriculture, 14%
Transport, 13%
Buildings, 8%
Waste, 3%
Volcanoes
Forest fires
Oceans
Impacts of Global Climate Change
 Rising sea level
– Melting Polar Ice
– Loss of Mountain
Glaciers and Snow Pack
– Expansion of the Oceans
Hurricane Katrina
New Orleans
 Changing weather patterns
–
–
–
–
Stronger Hurricanes
More Droughts and Flooding
Effects on Human Health
Effects on Ecosystems
The Aral Sea
Polar Bears
Impact of global climate change
“…Central Asia is another region severely affected by climate
change. An increasing shortage of water, which is both a key
resource for agriculture and a strategic resource for electricity
generation, is already noticeable. The glaciers in Tajikistan lost a
third of their area in the second half of the 20th century alone,
while Kyrgyzstan has lost over a 1000 glaciers in the last four
decades. There is thus considerable additional potential for
conflict in a region whose strategic, political and economic
developments as well as increasing trans-regional challenges
impact directly or indirectly on EU interests…”
Council of European Union Report 7249/08, “Climate change and
International security” - ‘Solana Report’ (March 3, 2008)
Examples of U.S. Initiatives
DOMESTIC:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
GHG Intensity Goal
Climate VISION
Climate Leaders
SmartWay Transport Partnership
ENERGY STAR®
Targeted Incentives for GHG
Sequestration
Fuel Economy Increase for Light Trucks
Tax Incentives to Reduce GHG
Emissions
Climate Change Science Program
Climate Change Technology Program
Clean Energy Initiative
Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency Partnership
INTERNATIONAL:
– Asia-Pacific Partnership for Clean
Development and Climate
– Methane to Markets Partnership
– International Partnership for
Hydrogen Economy
– Carbon Sequestration Leadership
Forum
– Generation IV International Forum
– ITER
– Bilateral and Regional Partnerships
– Group on Earth Observations
– Tropical Forest Conservation Act
– President’s Initiative Against Illegal
Logging
– Global Environmental Facility
U.S. Climate Change Policy Summary
U.S. takes the issue of climate change very seriously and remains
committed to the UNFCCC and to the mutual goals of sustainable
development and economic growth.
Addressing global climate change will require: sustained effort
involving all nations over many generations; an approach that will
harness the power of markets, the creativity of entrepreneurs, and
draw upon the best scientific research; and development and
deployment of new transformational technologies during this century.
U.S. has an ambitious near-term goal to reduce the growth of its GHG
emissions, and is taking many actions to help meet that goal.
U.S. is investing billions of dollars to address climate change—both in
the near-term and long-term.
U.S. is fully engaged internationally, is leading major bilateral and
multilateral climate change science and technology initiatives, and will
continue to cooperate with all nations.
Obama-Biden
New Energy for America Plan
Invest $150 billion over the next ten years to catalyze
private efforts to build a clean energy future
Within 10 years save more oil than the U.S. currently
imports from the Middle East and Venezuela combined
1 million Hybrid cars on the road by 2015
Ensure 10 percent of US electricity comes from
renewable sources by 2012, and 25 percent by 2025
Implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade program to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050
Desertification
The Causes of Desertification
Overcultivation
Overgrazing
Desertification is the degradation of drylands
Deforestation
Poor irrigation practices
Consequences of Desertification
 Desertification reduces
land’s resilience to
natural climate
variability
 Soil becomes less
productive
 Vegetation becomes
damaged
 Food production is
undermined
 Desertification
contributes to famine
 Enormous social costs
 Huge drain on
economic resources
Afghanistan (UNEP, 2001)
The U.S. Commitment to
Combating Desertification
In addition to USAID technical assistance to countries affected by
desertification, the USG contributes substantially to multilateral funds and
international organizations to address the root causes of desertification
worldwide:
United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification
Biodiversity
Biodiversity: Definition
Biodiversity is the variability among living
organisms from all sources
Terrestrial Ecoregions
Marine Ecoregions
Freshwater Ecoregions
Threats to Biodiversity
Habitat Destruction
Invasive Species
Pollution
Overpopulation
Overharvesting
Climate Change
Biodiversity Protection: Examples of
U.S. Initiatives and Partnerships
To end the illegal trade in wildlife and wildlife products through
reduction of consumer demand, awareness raising and
strengthening of wildlife law enforcement across continents
To assist developing countries to combat illegal logging, the
sale and export of illegally harvested timber and corruption in
the forest sector through good governance, community-based
actions, technology transfer and harnessing market forces
To develop global awareness and international consensus on
strategies to reduce the threat to human health, the
environment, and economic prosperity posed by invasive
alien species.
CONGO BASIN
FOREST PARTNERSHIP
To reduce the rate of forest degradation and loss of biodiversity
through increased local, national, and regional natural resource
management capacity, application of sustainable management
practices, the institutionalization of natural resources monitoring,
and the strengthening of natural resources governance
Water
Lack of Access to Safe Water
Over 1.49 billion of people lack access to safe water
Population With Access to Adequate Sanitation
N/A
20-40%
60-80%
0-20%
40-60%
80-100%
2.6 billion of people lack access to basic sanitation
Water-Related Deaths
“More than 5 million people die each
year from diseases caused by unsafe
drinking water, lack of sanitation, and
insufficient water for hygiene. In fact,
over 2 million deaths occur each year
from water-related diarrhea alone. At
any given time, almost half of the people
in developing countries suffer from
water-related diseases.”
Children of Kabul, Afghanistan (AP)
Johannesburg Summit 2002
“…one child every 8 seconds dies from water-related disease…”
World Health Organization, 2005
“…76 Million Could Perish From Water-Related Disease by 2020…”
Pacific Institute, 2002
Transboundary Waters





263 international river basins
50% of world’s land surface
60% of global freshwater flow
40% of world’s population
145 countries, eq.:




Danube River – 17 Basin States
Nile River – 10 Basin States
Congo, Niger, Rhine and Zambezi – 9 States
The Aral Sea Basin: two rivers and 6 basin
states
 Transboundary aquifers
Afghanistan
Pakistan
Indus River
India
World Water Crisis: U.S. Response
The Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act of 2005
U.S. Department of State
Creating a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the
benefit of the American people and the international community.
• Increase access to, and effective
use of, safe water and
sanitation;
• Improve water resources
management;
• Increase the productivity of
water resources; and
• Improve water security.
www.state.gov/g/oes/water
U.S. Strategy - Objectives
U.S.-Uzbekistan environmental
cooperation
Examples of US Government
Technical Assistance
 USAID Environmental Policy and Technology Project (19941998)
 USAID Environmental Polices and Institutions for Central Asia
(1998-2000)
 USAID Natural Resources Management Program for Central
Asia (2000-2005)
 USAID Water Users Association Support Program (2004-2009)
 US Embassy Environmental Small Grants Program
 US Embassy PAS Exchange Programs:
–
–
–
–
International Visitor Leadership Program
Volunteer Visitor Program
Fulbright Program
Speaker Program
US Department of State
Central Asia ESTH Hub
 Based in Astana, Kazakhstan
 Covers six Central Asian countries: Afghanistan,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and
Uzbekistan
 Hub Officer: Bruce Hudspeth
Hub Responsibilities
 Coordinates U.S. Department of State ESTH activities to the
region
 Works together with donor agencies to promote
cooperation and coordination
 Conveys U.S. Government positions to regional and national
ESTH organizations
 Represents U.S. Government at international meetings on
Central Asian ESTH issues
 Serves as a bridge between U.S. & Central Asia ESTH
institutions