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Guidelines for non-Annex I
National Communications
Implications for Assessment of
Impacts of, and Adaptation to
Climate Change
Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop
Bangkok, Thailand
24-27 March 2003
Graham Sem
Non-Annex I Implementation Programme
UNFCCC secretariat
[email protected]
Information to be communicated in national
communications (Article 12.1)
In accordance with Article 4.1, each Party shall
communicate to the COP, through the secretariat, the
following elements of information:
A national inventory of anthropogenic emission by sources
and removals by sinks of all GHGs not controlled by the
Montreal Protocol, to the extent its capacities permit, using
comparable methodologies to be promoted and agreed upon
by the COP;
A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the
Party to implement the Convention; and
Any other information that the Party considers relevant to
the achievement of the objective of the Convention and
suitable for inclusion in its communication, including, if
feasible, material relevant for calculations of global
emission trends.
Initial NC Guidelines on vulnerability and
adaptation (decision 10/CP.2)
General description of steps (par. 15)
… the initial communication should seek to include, as appropriate: ……
Policy frameworks for implementing adaptation measures and response
strategies in the context of coastal zone management, disaster
preparedness, agriculture, fisheries, and forestry,with a view to integrating
climate change impact information, as appropriate, into national planning
processes (c)
Programmes containing measures the Party believes contribute to
addressing climate change and its adverse impacts, including the
abatement of increase in greenhouse gas emissions and enhancement of
removals by sinks (e)
Financial and technological needs and constraints (par.22)
… the assessment of national, regional and/or subregional vulnerability to
climate change
National communication submissions by region
Asia-Pacific region
• 52 Parties
• 31 submitted
• 9 LDCs
Share of NAI Parties that have submitted their initial national communication
Share of Parties in the region/group
that have submitted
Latin America
and the
Asia and the
Regions/Groups of Parties
Vulnerability and adaptation information from
developing countries
Methods and tools
– IPCC Technical Guidelines (1994)
– UNEP Handbook (1998) and the International Handbook
– GCM-based scenarios
– Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT)
– Own models for water resource assessments
Impacts being experienced already
Impacts will be exacerbated in the future
Main problems
– Methodological
– Institutional
– Financial and technical
Methodological problems
Climate change versus climate variability
Climate change scenarios
Climate change as a dominant driver of change
Incompatibility with local capacities
Institutional problems
Lack of appropriate institutions
Lack of participation by policy-makers
Lack of structures/mechanisms
Lack of capacity
Financial/technical problems
Data acquisition
Institutional strengthening
Capacity building
Guidelines adopted at COP8
(Decision 17/CP.8)
Guidelines contained in the annex
to decision 17/CP.8, together with
the guidance to an operating
entity of the financial mechanism
provided in decision 6/CP.8,
should be used for the preparation
of second and, where appropriate,
third and initial national
Guidelines adopted at COP8
(Decision 17/CP.8)
Section I: Objectives
Section II: National circumstances
Section III: National GHG inventory
Section IV: General description of steps
programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate adaptation
programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change
Section V: Other information
“shall”, “should”, “may”, “are encouraged”
consistent, transparent, comparable, flexible
the extent to which developing country Parties … will depend on the
effective implementation by developed country Parties of their
commitments under the Convention relating to financial resources and
transfer of technology.
transfer of technologies (4/CP.7)
research and systematic observation (5/CP.5)
education, training and public awareness (Article 6)
capacity-building (2/CP.7)
information and networking
Section VI: Constraints and gaps
Section VII: Submission
General description of steps
(paras. 25-40)
Programmes containing measures to facilitate adequate
adaptation to climate change
• Each Party shall … provide to the COP information on the
general description of steps taken or envisaged towards
formulating, implementing, publishing and regularly updating
national and, where appropriate, regional programmes containing
measures to facilitate adequate adaptation to climate change, …
• Non-Annex I Parties should provide information on their
vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change, and on
adaptation measures being taken to meet specific needs and
concerns arising from these adverse effects.
Methodological approaches
Non-Annex I Parties may use appropriate methodologies and
guidelines they consider better able to reflect their national
situation for assessing their vulnerability and adaptation to
climate change, provided that these methodologies and
guidelines are consistent, transparent and well documented.
Non-Annex I Parties are encouraged to use, for the evaluation
of adaptation strategies and measures, appropriate
methodologies they consider better able to reflect their
national situation, provided that these methodologies are
consistent, transparent and well documented.
Encouraged to provide information on:
the scope of their V&A, including vulnerable areas most critical (32)
the description of approaches, methodologies, tools (scenarios and
the vulnerability to impacts of, and adaptation to, climate change in key
vulnerable areas — “ direct and indirect effects” allowing for an
“integrated analysis” (34)
the evaluation of strategies and measures for adapting in key areas of
the “highest priority” (35)
the policy framework such as NAPAs for LDC for developing and
implementing adaptation strategies and measures (36)
Non-Annex I Parties may include information on opportunities
for the implementation of adaptation measures, including pilot
and/or demonstration adaptation projects being undertaken
or proposed.
Non-Annex I Parties may also provide information on barriers
to the implementation of adaptation measures.
Non-Annex I Parties may include, as appropriate, information
on how support programmes from Parties included in Annex II
to the Convention are meeting their specific needs and
concerns relating to vulnerability and adaptation to climate
change. (p. 53)
UNFCCC Guidelines and their implications
Flexibility, provided that
methods are consistent,
transparent and well
Identify the most critical
areas for countries
Document “uncertainties”
Account for direct and
indirect effects
Allow for integrated
Identify for all countries key
areas and determine what
should have the highest
Incorporate policy analysis
(eg. NAPAs) in order to
develop and implement
adaptation strategies and
Limited resources