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Presentation to ICAO/McGill Conference on
Aviation Safety, Security and the
Jane Hupe
Chief, Environmental Unit
Montreal, 16 September 2007
Key Environmental Issues
Aircraft Engine Emissions
Emissions at high altitudes (8 to 13 km)
 Past / future growth
 Adverse meteorological conditions
 Fuel alternatives
Challenges for States and
How to find an appropriate
balance between future growth
and environmental problems?
How to accommodate States’ very
different views within a
harmonized worldwide approach?
ICAO Assembly
Air Transport
Air Navigation
Committee on Aviation
Environmental Protection
Special Report
on Aviation and the Global
Prepared at ICAO’s request in 1999
Covered climate change and ozone depletion
Aircraft in 1992 were estimated to contribute
about 3.5 percent of the total radiative forcing
(a measure of change in climate) by all human
activities and this percentage, which excludes
the effects of possible changes in cirrus
clouds, was projected to grow.
IPCC updated information on aviation
in 4th Assessment Report (AR4) 2007
• 3.0% of the total of the radiative forcing
• 2% of globally produced CO2
• 13% of fossil fuels consumed by transport
• CO2 projected to grow around 3 to 4% / year
Medium-term mitigation for CO2 emissions
from the aviation sector potentially can come
from improved fuel efficiency. However, such
improvements are expected to only partially
offset the growth of aviation CO2 emissions.
Tracking Climate Change
Aviation contributes to main scientific
research projects
In the framework of the CARIBIC and
MOZAIC projects, and now IAGOS
sensitive measuring devices aboard
long-haul aircraft collect data on the
composition of the Earth’s
atmosphere. Scientists worldwide
benefit from this research, which
helps them better understand the
causes and developments of climatic
Kyoto Protocol
Adopted in 1997/into force Feb. 2005
Commits Annex I Parties (developed
Countries) to individual, legally-binding
targets to limit or reduce greenhouse
gas emissions
Reductions of at least 5% between 20082012 compared to 1990 levels, AND TO
Pursue limitation or reduction of
emissions of greenhouse gases from
aviation bunker fuels, working through
ALL parties have to report to the Convention on
their emissions, including aviation emissions
Domestic aviation emissions included in
national totals
International aviation emissions reported
ICAO provided a study on quality of aviation
emissions data
ICAO cooperated with the revision of the 1996
IPPC Guidelines which includes an update of the
aviation emissions factors and other parameters
ICAO and UNFCCC Cont’d
Last Assembly requested ICAO to
continue to develop policy options
to limit or reduce emissions and to
develop proposals and provide
advice to UNFCCC ; and
to place special emphasis on the
use of technical solutions while
continuing consideration of
market-based measures
Policy Options to Reduce
Technology and Standards
Operational Measures
Market-based Measures:
•Emissions charges
•Emissions trading
•Voluntary measures
Technology and Standards
Emissions standards (NOx, HC, CO and
smoke number)
Emissions database available from
ICAO website
Technical Issues – NOx Standards
first adopted in 1981 and made
more stringent in1993,1998
and in 2004, when ICAO
adopted new Standards to be
applicable in 2008, 12% lower
than the existing Standards.
NOx Standards are beneficial to
LAQ and global climate
Long-term Technology Goals for
Medium (10 years) and Long term (20 years)
Technology Goals:
45% (2016) and 60% (2026) below CAEP/6
Report to be made openly available
Progress towards goals to be monitored
Goal-setting process to
be applied to:
Fuel consumption
Operational measures
Operational Measures
Improvements in air traffic management
(ATM) and other operational procedures
could reduce aviation fuel burn by
between 8 and 18%
Most important fuel saving opportunities
come from ATM efficiencies –
• more direct routings
• use of more efficient conditions such as
optimum altitude and speed
• e.g. CDAs, RVSM
Improvements in Flight
Opportunities for fuel conservation
•Landing weight
•Fuel reserves
•Airplane loading
•Route selection
•Altitude selection
•Speed selection
•Flap selection
What Are Market-Based
“are policy tools that are designed to
achieve environmental goals at a lower
cost and in a more flexible manner
than traditional command and control
regulatory measures.”
ICAO has looked at :
•voluntary measures
•emissions charges
•emissions trading
Types of MBMs
Voluntary Measures
• government and other entity agree to take
specified actions or meet specified goals
Emissions Charges
• a charge on the amount of emissions
• revenues used to mitigate the environmental
impact of engine emissions
Emissions Trading
• the total amount of emissions would be capped
• allowances in the form of permits could be bought
and sold to meet emission reduction objectives
• open trading allows trading across sectors
ICAO Guidance on Emissions Trading
Requested by last Assembly
New area - Living document
Focus on aviation-specific issues
• Aircraft are mobile sources
International civil aircraft operations only
• Not State aircraft - no customs and police services
Identifies options, pro’s and con’s and offers
potential solutions where possible
Approved as draft guidance
A35-5 Consolidated
statement of continuing
ICAO policies and
practices related to
environmental protection
New proposal for A36
Appendix H: Aviation
impact on local air quality
Appendix I: Aviation
impact on global climate
For more information on ICAO activities
on environmental protection:
Gateway to the UN System's
Work on Climate Change
Action without study is fatal:
Study without action is futile.
Thank you