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Transcript
Researching Climate Change
In vino veritas? Researching
International Environmental Law with
a Clear Head in the Hazy Era of
Climate Change
Marylin Johnson Raisch
International and Foreign Law Librarian
Bora Laskin Law Library, University of Toronto
CALL Annual Meeting, Niagara-on-the-Lake, May 26, 2003
Building a Knowledge Base
 How would an information specialist approach
creating a resource on the web which would
integrate on- and off-line materials, legal research,
scientific data gathering and analysis (reports), and
policy information?
Approaches to Complex
Research
 Narrative, contextual approach
 Annotated links approach
 The former provides a richer experience for
learning; the latter will eventually become a
set of bookmarks, some of which may rarely
be used.
Narrative Approach
 Tell the story of climate change: the issues, the
treaties, the efforts at compliance, new or amended
treaties
 The story will unfold chronologically but in
different locations:UN conferences, EU meetings,
the US political scene, Canadian Parliament and
ministries
 Highlight the major documents which emerge from
the process in each venue
Framework Convention on
Climate Change 1992
 The story:
 The documents:
 UN FCCC adopted 9 May 1992,
New York
 Berlin Mandate, Decision
1/CP.1: The Berlin Mandate:
Review of the adequacy of
Article 4, paragraph 2(a) and
(b), of the Convention,
including proposals related to
a protocol and decisions on
follow-up
FCCC/CP/1995/7 :earliest
doc at site (COP 1)
 Geneva Ministerial Declaration
FCCC/CP/1996/15/Add.1(not
 Text pamphlet pdf at
http://unfcc.int; may be Googled
with strong title words,
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/c
onvkp/conveng.pdfand
A/CONF.151/26/REV.1(VOL.I)
(Rio Earth Summit) , 13 I.L.M.
851 (1992) Official documents
search page- keywords Berlin,
Geneva; limit to COPs; earliest
two years should be selected
Kyoto Protocol to UNFCCC
1997
 The story:
 The documents:
 The Kyoto Protocol to the
UNFCCC
 Buenos Aires Plan of Action,
1/CP.4 1998
 Bonn implementation of above,
COP 6 Part II, 25 September
2001
 Marrakesh Accords, 21 January
2002
 Canada ratifies 17 December
2002
 Treaty text
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/conv
kp/kpeng.pdf at site or via Google,
strong words; citation for actual UN
doc., FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1
 Buenos Aires Plan of Action at
FCCC official doc site; UN Doc.
FCCC/CP/1998/16/Add.1
 Bonn, FCCC/CP/2001/5
 Marrakesh Accords, U.N. Doc.
FCCC/CP/2001/13 (report) and
Add.1-3
UNFCCC and Kyoto Travaux
and Commentary
 ;“Travaux” including Kyoto,
www.unfccc.int/resource/process/guideprocess-p.pdf
 Commentary, including Kyoto, www.unfccc.int/resource/guideconvkpp.pdf
 Oberthür, Sebastian and Hermann E. Ott, The Kyoto Protocol:
International Climate Policy for the 21st Century. Berlin: Springer, 1999.
Chronology of the climate change regime, citations to travaux
préparatoires, and article-based commentary.
 Climate Change “for dummies” (Beginner’s guide at the FCCC site):
http://unfccc.int/resource/beginner.html
 Do not forget to look at UNFCCC text. Example: Dispute settlement:
Art. 19 Kyoto incorporates FCCC Art. 14 in many respects and Art. 33
of UN Charter (peaceful negotiations  ICJ or arbitration
Compliance System and
“Kyoto Mechanisms”
 Compliance Committee: See
http://unfccc.int/issues/comp.html
 Facilitative branch
 Enforcement branch
 Emissions reduction and trading: 1) joint
implementation, art. 6 2) clean development
mechanism (CDM), art. 12 and 3) emissions
trading, art. 17. See
http://unfccc.int/issues/mechanisms.html
 Industrialized or Annex I countries
http://unfccc.int/resource/kpstats.pdf -marked by *
 Developing countries
European Union and its
European Community
 Created first “bubble” with collective fulfillment of
commitments under art. 3, para.1 and art. 4
 Activities and legal texts across the institutions
(Council, Parliament, etc.),
http://europa.eu.int/pol/env/index_en.htm
 European Commission “green portal”
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/index_en.htm with Climate
Change home page,
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/home_en.htm and
European Climate Change Programme (ECCP),
http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/eccp.htm
United States
 Pace Law School Global Warming Central,
http://www.law.pace.edu/globalwarming/US.html helps “cut
to the chase” in a complex policy arena, myriad
Congressional and executive documents, US federal and
state developments
 Climate Change Activities in the United
States, June, 2002
http://www.pewclimate.org/projects/us_activities.pdf
Pew Center on Global Climate Change
Canada
 Climate Change Plan for Canada, Nov. 21,
2002, Environment Canada
http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/plan_for_canada/plan/index
.html (English version)
 Government of Canada Climate Change Web
Site,
http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/plan_for_canada/plan/index
.html
NGOs, Databases: Advocacy,
Policy, and Science
 NGOs: list of admitted organizations under FCCC
art. 7, http://unfccc.int/resource/ngo/index.html
 National Communications,
http://unfccc.int/resource/natcom/nctable.html
 Science:


GHG inventory database, http://ghg.unfccc.int/;
Atlas of Population & Environment, American Association for
the Advancement of Science, http://atlas.aaas.org/index.php
 Focus on Climate Change, Global Sustainable
Development and International Law at Bora Laskin
Law Library, University of Toronto, http://www.lawlib.utoronto.ca/resguide/global/index.htm
Can’t stand the heat (from global
warming)? Get out of the kitchen, but
don’t forget…
 Bubbles-group of countries
with joint emission reduction
plan
 Baskets-single obligation to
reduce all GHGs
 COP/MOP- Conference of the
Parties sits as Meeting of Parties
 PAMs-policies and measures, art.
2
 COW-Committee of the Whole
 Alphabet soup: SBI,
SBSTA-Subsidiary Body :for
Implementation, for Scientific
and Technological Advice