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Transcript
GLOBAL WARMING
AND
CLIMATE CHANGE
 THE UNITED NATIONS
ERBİL ÖZTAŞ
 THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
ERCÜMENT OKUR
 THE EUROPEAN UNION
ALİŞAN AKBULUT
 NGOs
BORA BAHADIR
 TURKEY
SERKAN POLAT
THE UN & GLOBAL WARMING
 The world mostly agrees that something needs to be done about
global warming and climate change.
 In 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) was created by the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) and the World Meterological Organization
(WMO) to assess the scientific knowledge on global warming.
 The IPCC concluded in 1990 that there was broad international
consensus that climate change was human-induced.
UN & GLOBAL WARMING
 That report led way to an international convention for climate
change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), signed by over 150 countries at the Rio
Earth Summit in 1992.
 The United States plus a few other countries, and many large
corporations have been against climate change treaties due to
the fear of the threat to their economy and profits if they have
to make substantial changes.
 It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a
practical source of tourism know-how.
UN & GLOBAL WARMING
 The Organization encourages the implementation of the Global
Code of Ethics for Tourism, with a view to ensuring that
member countries .
 UNWTO is committed to the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals, geared toward reducing poverty and
fostering sustainable development.
 UNWTO meeting on Excellence in Energy Efficiency for the
Tourism Industry in the panel of Tourism Climate Change
Solutions: Improving sustainability and competitiveness.
UN & GLOBAL WARMING
 To stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse
gases at a level that will block dangerous human
interference with the climate system.
 To reduce their combined greenhouse gas emissions by at
least 5 per cent from 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012.
 Member countries of the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change negotiate the Kyoto Protocol.
The Kyoto Protocol
 The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in December
1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.
 So far 183 countries have ratified its Protocol to date
 The main target is to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
an average of 5 per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year
period 2008-2012.
 The GHG gases are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4),
and nitrous oxide (N20)
The five principal concepts of the Kyoto Protocol are:
1. Commitments, The heart of the Protocol lies in establishing
2.
3.
4.
5.
commitments for the reduction of greenhouse gases.
Implementation, In order to meet the objectives of the
Protocol countries are required to prepare policies and
measures for the reduction of greenhouse gases.
Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries by establishing
an adaptation fund for climate change.
Accounting, Reporting and Review in order to ensure the
integrity of the Protocol.
Compliance, Establishing a Compliance Committee to
enforce compliance.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change agreed to a set of a "common but differentiated
responsibilities." The parties agreed that:
1.
the largest share of historical and current global emissions of
greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries;
2.
per capita emissions in developing countries are still
relatively low
3.
the share of global emissions originating in developing
countries will grow to meet their social and development
needs.
Turkey & Kyoto
 Turkey previously rejected signing the protocol, arguing that
the country needed the opportunity to first complete its
industrial development and also it could cause huge financial
requirements for Turkey.
 However, Turkey was under EU pressure to sign the Kyoto
Protocol, since the environment is a chapter in accession
negotiations. In 05.06.2008 the process began formally.
 Joining Kyoto is mainly a symbolic move for Turkey at this
point, as it will have no quantified emissions requirements until
2012.
THE EU AND GLOBAL WARMING
 The EU is one of the biggest political organisations in the
world.
 It comprises 27 member states and under its banner are close to
500 million people.
 The GDP that the E.U generates accounts for roughly 30% of
the world.
 In terms of the world's environment, then, it is a chief player .
What is the European Union doing to combat global warming and
climate change? And are they committed to the cause?
 EU realized that a sustainable future is only possible with a
growing conciousness and willingness on the part of the public
to accept and encourage environmental policy and legislation.
 The 'E.U Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS)' was
established to answer exactly that question
 So the E.U - acknowledging its role within the world's sphere champions the importance of climate change as a global issue
 Its method for achieving that aim is to work closely and
extensively with the world's other governmental bodies.
What is the European Union doing to combat global warming and
climate change? And are they committed to the cause?
 The "Climate action and renewable energy package": the
European Commission's legislative proposal to achieve agreed
EU objectives in the fight against climate change
 On 23 January 2008 the European Commission put forward
package of proposals to fight climate change and promote
renewable energy up to 2020 and beyond
 The EU is committed to reducing its overall emissions to at
least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020
 It has also set itself the target of increasing the share of
renewables in energy use to 20% by 2020.
What is the European Union doing to combat global warming and
climate change? And are they committed to the cause?
 The European Union has long been at the forefront of international efforts to
combat climate change and has played a key role in the development of the
two major treaties addressing the issue, the 1992 United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto
Protocol, agreed in 1997.
 the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was launched to to
identify and develop all the necessary elements of an EU strategy to
implement the Kyoto Protocol
 EU leaders endorsed this vision in March 2007. They committed the EU to
cutting its greenhouse gas emissions by 30% of 1990 levels by 2020
provided other developed countries commit to making comparable
reductions under a global agreement.
What is the European Union doing to combat global warming and
climate change? And are they committed to the cause?
 EU leaders set three key targets to be met by 2020:
 a 20% reduction in energy consumption
 an increase to 20% in renewable energies' share of total energy
consumption
 an increase to 10% in the share of petrol and diesel
consumption
 Austria, Britain, Denmark, Germany and Luxembourg are the
five countries in the EU who must make the biggest cuts.
GLOBAL WARMING AND NGOs
 Non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”) have historically
taken an active role in the development and enforcement of
environmental laws in an approach that some refer to as
“regulation by litigation.” Given their concerns about global
climate change, and the absence of legislative activity and
enforcement, NGOs are calling for more unified and effective
litigation tactics in an attempt to force action on climate policy.
GLOBAL WARMING AND NGOs
 The majority of environmental NGOs are interested in areas
such as the protection of nature biological diversity forests
erosion sea and coasts. NGOs have a growing influence in
struggle of protection of nature and must assume the
responsibility of raising public awareness and improving
legislation on environmental issues.
 Civil society organizations have been taking increasingly
important roles in creating public awareness on environmental
problems of the world with their numbers growing here in
recent years.
NUMBER OF ENVIROMENTTAL
NGOs
The number of environmental organizations established
between 1925 and 1995 was 136 this figure jumped to 439 in
the 1995-2007 period which means the number of
environmental organizations established in the last 12 years is
three times greater than the number established in the 70 years
previous to this period.
STUDIES OF NGOs
Greenpeace:
 It is an international non-governmental organization for the
protection and conservation of the environment and for
promoting peace. Greenpeace utilizes nonviolent direct action,
lobbying and research to achieve its goals.
 Greenpeace has a worldwide presence with national and
regional offices in over 40 countries, which are affiliated to the
Amsterdam-based Greenpeace International.
“Project Hot Seat”
 Greenpeace has several projects for global warming and
climate change. All these projects are directly or indirectly
related to tourism. One of the recent projects is Greenpeace
USA's “Project Hot Seat”.
 This campaign aims to get a pro-climate protection majority in
the US Congress. Greenpeace activists and grassroots groups
are urging Congressmen and women across America, to sign up
to the Safe Climate Act. They try to minimize the effect of
global warming to many industries like tourism, agriculture and
transportation.
STUDIES OF NGOs
Friends of the Earth:
 It is a group of committed people, established in 1969, who
fight daily for a healthy and just world.
 They mainly focus on Cruise Ships and Pollution and
Pollution of Fast Ferries
New Economic Foundation:
 NEF is an independent think-and-do tank that inspires and
demonstrates real economic well-being.
 they believe that increase use of air travel contrubutes to global
warming. They look for alternatives for transportation in
toursim.
NGOs in TURKEY
 Training and public awareness activities in the field of
prevention of climate change have gained an apparent
momentum in Turkey as a result of harmonization with the EU.
The Environmental Law amended recently, promotes
expansion of environmental training activities and raising
public awareness. NGOs are very important instruments in this
process.
 There are more than 350 NGOs in Turkey who deals with
enviromental issues.
NGOs in TURKEY
 TEMA is most known NGO dealing with global warming and
climate change in Turkey.
 TEMA has many projects in dealing process of global
warming.
 “BisikleTEMA” is one of these projects. One couple has
started travel from America by a bicycle. This couple aims to
reach Australia within 16 months passing through Turkey.
Current Situation
 The most prominent feature of recorded changes
proves to be the widespread increase in summer
temperatures especially in the western and southwestern parts of Turkey.
 Precipitation decreases along the Aegean and
Mediterranean coasts and increases along the Black
Sea coast of Turkey.
 Coastal erosion, flooding along Turkish shorelines are
the problems of national significance.
 Tourist and coastal cities are particularly under threat
as a result the Tourism Sector is,too.
Turkey is ready to undertake its
commitments and comply with the
responsibilities embodied by the Annex I
countries to the Convention according to
its special circumstances.
The specific national conditions of Turkey
in this respect have to be considered.
With 3.3 tonnes per capita, Turkey
possesses the lowest per capita fossil
fuel-based CO2 emissions amongst
OECD countries whose average is 11.1,
the world average is 4.0 and the EU 25
average is 9.0 [2006].
In a study issued by the United Nations on climate change, Turkey was reported to have
released 294 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually.
The report said that Turkey recorded the fastest growth of any country in levels of carbon
dioxide emissions, with a 74.4 percent increase between 1990 and 2007.
R&D Studies and Related Projects
 The “National Energy Technologies Research
Program” started jointly by MENR, MoEF, EIE,
TTGV and TUBITAK was completed in 2002. The
resulting report contains a 10-year National
Operation Program.
 There are a number of studies, which may play an
important role in the renewable energy sources in
Turkey.
Adaptation
 Turkey, being a coastal country, recognised the increasing number of








problems in coastal zones and many precautions are being taken by
several governmental institutions and agencies. For example, most
of the protection areas declared by the Turkish government are
located in the coastal zones such as
Fethiye-Gocek,
Gokova,
Patara,
Kekova,
Foca,
Datca-Bozburun
and Belek etc.
In respect to offsetting the increasing water scarcity problems and
desertification, Developing techniques for non-traditional use of
water resources, Improving and developing new plant species
resistant to drought and salinity, Developing plant species that may
yield quality products with low-quality water are recognised as
adaptation measures.
NATIONAL LAWS
 The 4856 numbered Law Of Establishment and
Organization Of The Ministry of Environment and
Forestry with the aim of providing environment services
including conformity to EU environment rules.
 The 5393 numbered Municipalities Law and
 The 5216 numbered Metropolitan Municipalities Law
charges the municipalities to apply the above mentioned
laws and by-laws inside municipality borders.
 The 2872 numbered Environment Law
 The 1593 numbered Public Hygiene Law and 181 numbered
Legal Decision.
 The 5442 numbered City Management Law’s 9th article,
Global Environment Facility- GEF
Contributions
 Turkey has become eligible for GEF
assistance after becoming a party to the
UNFCCC. Turkey as an Annex I country,
contributed a total of $23,326,400 to the GEF
funding mechanism as annual fees. In the
meantime, as a developing country. Turkey
received $33,134,000 of funding in total:
$21,507,000 for national projects and $11,627,
000 for regional projects.
 The only project directly related to climate
change is the Enabling Activity Project with a
budget of $420,000.
Obligations under International Laws
Turkey’s obligations under international law
stem from multi-lateral conventions and protocols
that it has been a party to.
Turkey has ratified over 50 international legal
dispositions in relation to the environment
International environmental declarations and
agreements mainly related to climate change that
Turkey became a party to include:
 The Agreement of International Energy Program, Paris 1974
 UNECE Convention on Long-range Trans-boundary Air Pollution,1979
 The International Air Pollution Contract, Geneva 1984
 The 1985 dated Vienna Agreement the protection of ozone layer
 The Montreal Protocol about substances consuming ozone layer, 1987
 The Frame Agreement about Climate Changes, UNFCCC 1992
 Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development and Agenda 21, 1992
 Convention to Combat Desertification, 1995