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Transcript
UNECA
ClimDev-Africa
Preparatory conference for the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development (Rio+20)
Climate change and development in Africa:
Linking policy to practice
Youba SOKONA
African Climate Policy Centre (ACPC)
Climate
Change
Meets
Policy
Outline
UNECA
Outline:
• The climate change fact
• Africa’s response and the development
challenge
• A new approach to climate change in
Africa
• The climate change opportunity
• The ClimDev-Africa and the ACPC
UNECA
•
•
•
Any existing opportunities should be
exploited to achieving goals
Guinea's G'bessi Airport, Conakry
Between 1999 and 2002 schools in Guinea had a modest pass rate of 30-35%
Since 2003 that has dropped to between 20 and 25%
Source: BBC
Facts
UNECA
Despite economic growth during past 15 years:
• Africa as a whole is lagging behind on each
of the eight MDGs
• Achieving the MDGs requires enduring
efforts and adequate resources
• The challenge is further compounded by
adverse impacts and the grave long-term risk
that climate change poses.
Observations
UNECA
• Warming of the climate system is
unequivocal, as is evident from:
– scientific findings
– various observations
• Mitigation measures are slow and sparse
• Adaptation has started however
• Further adaptation is now unavoidable
– but without mitigation of greenhouse gas
emissions, it may be impossible to achieve
meaningful adaptation where it is direly needed
Reasons for concern
UNECA
2°C-Guardrail
(Smith et al. 2009 PNAS)
Holistic approach and concerted and
differentiated actions are required
Per capita GHG emissions (concentrations)
UNECA
550 PPMV
Least Developed
Countries
Emerging
Economies
& EITs
More adaptation
Less mitigation
Developed Countries
More mitigation
less adaptation
Adaptation &
mitigation
Corridor of sustainable
development &
stabilization of GHGs
450 PPMV
Training
Institutional support
Information support
R&D support
Collaborative
R&D
Technology
Partnership &
Networking
$1200
$7000
Annual
per capita Income
Technology facilitation
and
Partnerships
African Scenarios – there is a lot of uncertainty
Changes in surface water
supply across Africa with
Predicted Climate
Change
UNECA
Will there be increases or
decreases in available water?
Small changes in temperature will see
average river flows and water
availability increase by 10-40% in
some regions, while in others there
will be a decrease of 10-30%
Example: Blue Nile GCM downscaling
Precipitation
Potential ET
Source: Maartin de Wit and Jacek Stankiewicz
www.scienceexpress.org/2March2006/Page1/10.1126/science1119929
Actual ET
Runoff
10 models show likely decrease of runoff while 7 shows like increase of runoff
Africa is responding to climate change
UNECA
There have been many initiatives/action plans of what Africa needs to do:
• African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN)
• Conference of African Heads of State and Government on Climate Change
(CAHOSCC) and climate change negotiators
• United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and related instruments
(UNFCCC)
• NEPAD Environmental Action Plan
• The Cancun Agreements
• African Development Forum VII
• Global Climate Observation System (GCOS)
• AMCEN Comprehensive Framework for Climate Change
• Africa-EU Climate Change Partnership
Africa is acting on climate change:
• Examples include:
– CCAA, AfricaAdapt
– African Adaptation Programme
– The ClimDev-Africa Programme
– Many other initiatives, institutions and responses
Much more is required for Africa to address climate change and development:
• That is why we are here at this symposium
The development challenge
UNECA
• It is widely recognized and accepted that in
Africa, climate change will hamper the ability
of Africa to adequately address:
–
–
–
–
–
–
rapid onset-disaster events
Widening energy access
water availability
food security
public health
migration
• Adaptation to climate change is a matter of
survival for most Africans
UNECA
Recently Africa’s growth has been
widespread…
11
..and it needs energy to keep growing..
UNECA
560 million sub-Saharan Africans lack access to electricity
UNECA
But
• The quality of growth matters
• Moving towards low carbon and resilient
pathway is paramount
– For increasing demand for services and meeting
unmet demand
– Avoid lock-into carbon intensive options
– Integrate mitigation in SD policies
• In some ways, Africa in an advantageous
position
– starting from a low base and has the resources
Mainstreaming is necessary but …
UNECA
it may lead to an
overload
14
A new approach is required…
UNECA
• That starts with development priorities, following this approach, we
can:
– aim to meet development and poverty eradication objectives
– use strategies that aim for climate safe and climate friendly development
• That can explore wide range of already existing development
initiatives that are climate resilient and friendly:
– there exist a diversity of local actions, national policies that have delivered
positive development and climate outcomes
– we can explore such options at various levels
– we can scale them up coupling with international initiatives to enhance
their impacts
• This approach is “development first” that will stimulate concrete
actions, mainstreaming, strong and inclusive climate actions and
cooperation at global, regional and local levels
Turning adversity into opportunity
Physical scarcity: Not enough
water.
UNECA
Economic Scarcity: Not
infrastructure to make water
available to people
We can manage both
scarcities
Africa:
•Renewable water resources
estimated at about 5,400 billion
m3/yr of which 15% (810 million
m3/yr) is groundwater
•Low level of withdrawals of water
for agriculture, water supply and
6-9/11/2007
energy:
3.8% of total annual WR
Hydropower Outlook fro Africa (BMZ, EUDEV.de, 2007)
Better exploring opportunity
UNECA
We need to:
• revisit our development objectives and strategies from
a new perspective
• renew its focus and urgency on sustainability
We need to address at the same time:
• climate resilient and low carbon future
• local, national, regional and global concerns
• immediate needs while investing in long term
obligations by:
– the imperative of building bridges between development
and environment more systematically
– widening decision making process at various levels
The policy challenge
UNECA
•
Development pathways influence climate change and
climate change could have significant impacts on
development and underdevelopment as they can be
mutually reinforcing.
•
Tackling global climate change is an inherently
complex problem requiring robust inter-related
policies at international, regional, national and local
levels.
•
Holistic approach, concerted and differentiated
mitigation as well as adaptation actions are absolute
prerequisites.
Climate change
Business as usual
Development and
underdevelopment
Climate change
Climate adaptation and mitigation
Development
•climate resilient
•low carbon
•resource efficient
•sustainable
A future with
•energy access
•water availability
•food security
•employment
•opportunity
Finance challenge
UNECA
From the Copenhagen Accord and Cancun Agreements…
Fast start finance
Long term finance
Cancun agreements
LULUCF
& REDD +
?
US$30 Billion
2010-2012
Adaptation
and NAPAs
Technology
development
and transfer
US$100
Billion per
year from
2020
?
?
?
Capacity
building
• At the global level significant resources are likely to be available,
but we need to make sure, at the negotiations stage, that these
resources benefit Africans at local and national levels
Challenge for coherent national framework
UNECA
Linking international, national and local levels of climate adaptation and
mitigation
LULUCF
& REDD +
Climate finance
Fast start / Long
Term Finance
•Multilateral
•Bilateral
•Private
•
•
•
Adaptation
and NAPAs
National
Framework
Dialogue
Agreement
Technology
development
and transfer
Capacity
building
Action
Communities
Institutions and grass roots
groups
Information and knowledge
•Indigenous knowledge
•Institutional knowledge
•Research
Action, participation and
employment
We can use climate change agreements and negotiations as an opportunity to support our
development efforts
With effective coordination, institutions and policies, nations and communities can benefit from
international climate change agreements
To access climate finance, or participate in climate related mechanisms and initiatives requires
effective institutions that can coordinate, as well as measure, report and verify climate related
activities
–
In effect good governance is required to benefit from climate change negotiations and any climate
agreements
Any difficult journey requires innovation
UNECA
ClimDev-Africa Programme
UNECA
The ACPC is:
•1 of 3 inputs to the Programme
•Secretariat to the Programme
ACPC’s inputs are in the form of:
•Knowledge gen. & sharing
•Advocacy & consensus building
•Tech. coop. & capacity dev.
Technical
Advisory Panel
Stakeholder
forums
Meetings of the Chief Executives of the
AUC, UNECA and AfDB
ClimDev Programme Steering Committee
(CDSC)
(AUC, UNECA, AfDB and others)
African Climate Policy
Centre
ClimDev-Africa
Special Fund
(UNECA - ACPC)
(AfDB - CDSF)
Climate Change and
Desertification Unit
(AUC - CCDU)
e.g. Climate Change
and Dev. Conf. & other
forums/platforms
Regional / sub-regional level
National level
RECs/SROs, Regional/Sub-Regional Climate
Institutions, RBOs, Research Institutions
NMHSs, Sectoral Actors (public sector,
private sector, civil society)
The ACPC Climate and Dev.
UNECA
Climate and Development
Policy Community
Practice Community
Research Community
•Knowledge generation and sharing
•Advocacy and consensus building
•Technical coop’n and capacity dev.
•Frameworks, strategies, plans
•Case studies and examples
•Research and partnerships
ACPC
Climate finance and economics
Climate resilient development
Low carbon development
Climate science, data and information
Activities to date
UNECA
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Advocacy and consensus
building
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)
 The ACPC Work Programme has been
presented by the ACPC in many forums
 The contents of the Work Programme have
been widely consulted with stakeholders
 The activities under the Work Programme are
demand led
Activities to date
UNECA
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Advocacy and consensus
building
Climate science, data, information and service
delivery
 High Level Expert Consultation for gaps and needs analysis
 5 issue papers under development
 These papers will be presented to the CCDA Conference
Climate resilience development and
adaptation
 High Level Expert Consultation on water and agriculture sectors,
consultations with RECs and others
 West Africa Trans-boundary Aquifer Management Project
 6 issue papers under development, feeding into CCDA
 Started work NEPAD, The Gambia, UNDP Ethiopia, etc
Low carbon development and energy in Africa
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)





High Level Expert Consultation for gaps and needs analysis
14 issue papers under development
Started low carbon development scenarios project
Framing paper on energy access and poverty
Involved in review of investment plan for SREP with UNDP
Climate finance and economics





Produced a discussion paper on climate finance for Africa
Undertaking research on fast start finance to support AMCEN
Working with TERI on carbon finance and policy compendium
Working with ACCE carbon credit and finance instruments for Africa
Working with SRO-North African on financing instrument for renewable
energy
Activities to date
UNECA
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Supporting climate change negotiators
 Identifying knowledge needs
 Preparation of papers to better inform their negotiation positions
 Seconded senior experts to service meetings of African negotiators
CoP17, Africa Pavilion and Africa Day
Advocacy and consensus
building
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)
 Concept notes prepared
 Supporting organisation and resource mobilisation
 Chairing technical sub-committee and supporting communications subcommittee
Communications
 Website launched
 First newsletter published
 News bulletins, briefing notes and interviews organised
Activities to date
UNECA
Servicing African Union and regional bodies
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Advocacy and consensus
building
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)
 Review of African Climate Change Strategy
 Backstopping as requested e.g. Ministerial meetings
Initiating sub-regional and national projects
 Requests received from The Gambia, Djibouti and Ethiopia
 Started transboundary aquifer management project with GWP in West
Africa
 Started Capacity building for climate change adaptation SRO-NA
 Kicked off FIRM project – covering Kenya, Rwanda, Mali, Zambia, and
The Gambia
 Initiated Infrastructure and climate change with SRO-EA
 Supporting a climate change action plan with CA (CEEAC)
NAMAs and MRV
 Supporting ECOWAS strengthen capacity of member states
 Investigating collaboration with various partners on MRV methods for
Africa
Supporting climate data and information
initiatives across Africa
 e.g. Geoshare, GGIM, ACMAD, AMESD and MESA
Partnerships established
 Partnerships are at various levels of development and formalisation
Activities to date
UNECA
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Advocacy and consensus
building
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)
Servicing ClimDev-Africa Joint Secretariat
Working Group (AUC, UNECA and AfDB), eg:
 Preparation and servicing the meetings
 Provision of background information such as the ACPC work
programme
Prepared, hosted and serviced the ClimDev
Programme Steering Committee (CDSC):
 Prepared and hosted meeting
 Provided relevant documents such as
 An Africa Day concept note
 A CCDA-1 concept note
 A revised TOR for the CDSC
 A ClimDev-Africa Work Plan
Reviewed the draft ClimDev Special Fund
Operations and Procedures Manual:
 Provided comments on the draft
 Reviewed a second draft
 Met with an AfDB representative and discussed key points from the
manual
Activities to date
UNECA
ACPC
Work Programme
Knowledge generation,
sharing and networking
Advocacy and consensus
building
Advisory services and
technical cooperation
Secretariat service for
ClimDev-Africa
Climate Change and
Development in Africa
Conference (CCDA)
Organised and hosted the first Climate
change and development in Africa Conference
(CCDA-1)
Outputs and outcomes include:
 Outcome Statement of the First Climate Change and
Development in Africa (CCDA-I)
 Report of the CCDA-1 Conference
 Papers and reports in support of the CCDA-1 and
Africa Pavilion
 Africa Pavilion (COP17) promotion has resulted in
the engagement of African stakeholders
 These outputs and outcomes are, amongst other
things, informing the 2012 work plan for the ClimDev
Africa Programme
Upcoming milestones
UNECA
Milestones
December 31st
 the first full
calendar year of
operation of the
ACPC
•
– policy
– practice
– research
•
2011
November 28-December 9
 17th Conference of Parties
(COP17) and the 7th
Session of the Meeting of
the Parties (CMP7) to the
Kyoto Protocol (KP),
including:
 Africa Pavilion
 Africa Day
The CCDA-1 will bring together ClimDevAfrica stakeholders from the areas of:
The CCDA-1, Africa Pavilion and Africa
Day are platforms for:
2012–
knowledge generation, sharing and networking
– advocacy and consensus building
– advisory services and technical cooperation
•
The 31st of December is a time to reflect
on:
– recruitment and the capacity of the Centre
– progress on the work programme
– the state of the ClimDev-Africa Programme
•
The CCDA-1, Africa Pavilion and Africa
Day will set the ClimDev-Africa and ACPC
agenda for 2012
UNECA
United Nations
Economic Commission for Africa
Thank you
Youba Sokona
[email protected]
Climate
Change
Meets
Policy