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Transcript
POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION
by LYNN CIALDELLA, MA, MBA, The University of Texas at Austin
UNIT 1
4
Energy and
Cellular Metabolism
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
FOURTH EDITION
About this Chapter
 Energy in biological systems
 Chemical reactions
 Enzymes
 Metabolism
 ATP production
 Synthetic pathways
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Energy: Biological Systems
Energy transfer in the environment
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-1
Energy: Capacity to Do Work
 Chemical work
 Making and breaking of chemical bonds
 Transport work
 Moving ions, molecules, and larger particles
 Creates concentration gradients
 Mechanical work
 Used for movement
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Energy: Two Forms
The relationship between kinetic energy and
potential energy
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-2a
Energy: Two Forms
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-2b
Energy: Two Forms
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-2c
Energy: Thermodynamics
 First law of thermodynamics
 Total amount of energy in the universe is constant
 Second law of thermodynamics
 Processes move from state of order to disorder
or entropy
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chemical Reactions: Overview
Activation energy is the
energy that must be put
into reactants before a
reaction can proceed
A+BC+D
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-3
Chemical Reactions: Coupling
Energy transfer and storage in biological reactions
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-5
Enzymes: Overview
 Speed up the rate of reactions
 Isozymes
 Catalyze same reaction but under different conditions
 May be activated, inactivated, or modulated
 Coenzymes  vitamins
 Chemical modulators  temperature and pH
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Enzymes: Speed Up Reactions
Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-8
Enzymes: Law of Mass Action
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-9a
Enzymes: Law of Mass Action
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-9b
Enzymes: Types of Reactions
Types
1. Oxidation-reduction
2. Hydrolysis-dehydration
3. Addition-subtractionexchange
4. Ligation
Description
+/- electrons or H+
+/- water
+/- or exchange
groups
Joins using ATP
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Metabolism: Overview
A group of metabolic pathways resembles a road map
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-10
Metabolism: Cell Regulation
 Controlling enzyme concentrations
 Producing modulators
 Feedback inhibition
 Using different enzymes
 Isolating enzymes
 Maintaining ratio of ATP to ADP
 ADP + Pi + energy  ATP
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
ATP Production: Overview
Overview
of aerobic
pathways
for ATP
production
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-13
ATP Production: Glycolysis
Glucose
+ 2 NAD+
+ 2 ADP
+ P  2 Pyruvate +
2 ATP
+ 2 NADH
+ 2 H+
+ 2 H20
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-14
ATP Production: Pyruvate Metabolism
Pyruvate can be converted into lactate or acetyl CoA
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-15
ATP Production: Citric Acid Cycle
 Acetyl CoA
enters the
citric acid
cycle
producing
3 NADH,
1 FADH2,
and 1 ATP
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-16
ATP Production: Electron Transport
Mitochondrial
matrix
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
2 H2O
e–
O2 +
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
Matrix pool of H+
3
1
ATP
4e–
High-energy electrons
2
H+
H+
ADP
+ Pi
4
H+
H+
H+
H+
Intermembrane
space
H+
High-energy
electrons
Electron
transport
system
Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
High-energy electrons
from glycolysis
1 Energy released
during metabolism
is captured by highenergy electrons
carried by NADH
and FADH2.
2 Energy from high-energy
electrons moving along
the protein complexes
of the electron transport
system pumps H+ from
the matrix into the
intermembrane space.
Cytosol
3 Electrons at the end of the
electron transport system
are back to their normal
energy state. They combine
with H+ and oxygen to
form water.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
4 Potential energy captured in
the H+ concentration gradient
is converted to kinetic energy
when H+ pass through the ATP
synthase. Some of the kinetic
energy is captured as ATP.
Figure 4-17
ATP Production: Electron Transport
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
Mitochondrial
matrix
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
e–
1
High-energy electrons
Intermembrane
space
High-energy
electrons
Electron
transport
system
Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
High-energy electrons
from glycolysis
Cytosol
1 Energy released
during metabolism
is captured by highenergy electrons
carried by NADH
and FADH2.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-17, step 1
ATP Production: Electron Transport
Mitochondrial
matrix
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
e–
1
e–
High-energy electrons
2
H+
H+
H+
Intermembrane
space
H+
H+
H+
High-energy
electrons
Electron
transport
system
Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
High-energy electrons
from glycolysis
Cytosol
1 Energy released
2 Energy from high-energy
during metabolism
electrons moving along
is captured by highthe protein complexes
energy electrons
of the electron transport
carried by NADH
system pumps H+ from
and FADH2.
the matrix into the
intermembrane space.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-17, steps 1–2
ATP Production: Electron Transport
Mitochondrial
matrix
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
2 H2O
e–
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
O2 + Matrix pool of H+
3
1
4e–
High-energy electrons
2
H+
H+
H+
Intermembrane
space
H+
H+
H+
High-energy
electrons
Electron
transport
system
Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
High-energy electrons
from glycolysis
1 Energy released
2 Energy from high-energy
during metabolism
electrons moving along
is captured by highthe protein complexes
energy electrons
of the electron transport
carried by NADH
system pumps H+ from
and FADH2.
the matrix into the
intermembrane space.
Cytosol
3 Electrons at the end of the
electron transport system
are back to their normal
energy state. They combine
with H+ and oxygen to
form water.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-17, steps 1–3
ATP Production: Electron Transport
Mitochondrial
matrix
CITRIC
ACID
CYCLE
2 H2O
e–
Inner
mitochondrial
membrane
O2 + Matrix pool of H+
3
1
ATP
4e–
High-energy electrons
2
H+
H+
ADP
+ Pi
4
H+
H+
H+
H+
Intermembrane
space
H+
High-energy
electrons
Electron
transport
system
Outer
mitochondrial
membrane
High-energy electrons
from glycolysis
1 Energy released
2 Energy from high-energy
during metabolism
electrons moving along
is captured by highthe protein complexes
energy electrons
of the electron transport
carried by NADH
system pumps H+ from
and FADH2.
the matrix into the
intermembrane space.
Cytosol
3 Electrons at the end of the
4 Potential energy captured in
the H+ concentration gradient
electron transport system
is converted to kinetic energy
are back to their normal
when H+ pass through the ATP
energy state. They combine
+
synthase. Some of the kinetic
with H and oxygen to
energy is captured as ATP.
form water.
NADH and FADH2  ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-17, steps 1–4
ATP Production: Large Biomolecules
 Glycogenolysis
 Glycogen
 Storage form of glucose in liver and skeletal
muscle
 Converted to glucose or glucose 6-phosphate
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
ATP Production: Large Biomolecules
 Protein catabolism and deamination
 Catabolism
 Hydrolysis of peptide bonds
 Deamination
 Removal of amino group
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
ATP Production: Lipolysis
If acetyl CoA
production
exceeds
capacity for
metabolism,
production
of ketone
bodies
results
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-20
Synthesis: Gluconeogenesis
Glucose can be made
from glycerol or amino
acids in liver and
kidney
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-21
Synthesis: Lipids
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-22
Synthesis: Lipids
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-22 (1 of 3)
Synthesis: Lipids
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-22 (2 of 3)
Synthesis: Lipids
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-22 (3 of 3)
Synthesis: Lipids
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-22
Synthesis: Protein
The major steps
required to
convert the
genetic code
of DNA into
a functional
protein
20 different
amino acids
made from 4
nitrogenous
bases
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Regulatory proteins
Constitutively
active
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
2 TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA
3 mRNA PROCESSING
Alternative
splicing
Processed
mRNA
siRNA
Interference
mRNA “silenced”
• rRNA in ribosomes
• tRNA
• Amino acids
4 TRANSLATION
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Protein chain
5 POST-TRANSLATIONAL Folding and Cleavage into Addition of groups: Assembly into
MODIFICATION
• sugars
cross-links smaller peptides
polymeric
• lipids
proteins
• —CH3
• phosphate
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24
Synthesis: Protein
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Constitutively
active
Regulatory proteins
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24, step 1
Synthesis: Protein
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Constitutively
active
Regulatory proteins
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
2 TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24, steps 1–2
Synthesis: Protein
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Regulatory proteins
Constitutively
active
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
2 TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA
3 mRNA PROCESSING
Alternative
splicing
Processed
mRNA
siRNA
Interference
mRNA “silenced”
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24, steps 1–3
Synthesis: Protein
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Regulatory proteins
Constitutively
active
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
2 TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA
3 mRNA PROCESSING
Alternative
splicing
Processed
mRNA
siRNA
Interference
mRNA “silenced”
• rRNA in ribosomes
• tRNA
• Amino acids
4 TRANSLATION
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Protein chain
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24, steps 1–4
Synthesis: Protein
Gene
1 GENE ACTIVATION
Regulatory proteins
Constitutively
active
Regulated
activity
Induction
Repression
2 TRANSCRIPTION
mRNA
3 mRNA PROCESSING
Alternative
splicing
Processed
mRNA
siRNA
Interference
mRNA “silenced”
• rRNA in ribosomes
• tRNA
• Amino acids
4 TRANSLATION
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Protein chain
5 POST-TRANSLATIONAL Folding and Cleavage into Addition of groups: Assembly into
MODIFICATION
• sugars
cross-links smaller peptides
polymeric
• lipids
proteins
• —CH3
• phosphate
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-24, steps 1–5
Protein: Transcription
 Transcription factors bind and activate promoter
region
 RNA polymerase binds and “unwinds” DNA
 mRNA created from sense strand
 mRNA is processed by
 RNA interference
 Alternative splicing
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
2
RNA
polymerase
mRNA
processing
Nuclear
membrane
Amino acid
tRNA
4 Translation
Growing peptide
chain
Incoming tRNA
bound to an
amino acid
Lys
Asp
Outgoing
“empty” tRNA
3 Attachment of
ribosomal subunits
Phe Trp
Anticodon
mRNA
AA G A C C
G AU UU C UG G A A A
Ribosome
mRNA
5 Termination
Ribosomal
subunits
Completed
peptide
Each tRNA molecule attaches at one end
to a specific amino acid. The anticodon of
the tRNA molecule pairs with the appropriate
codon on the mRNA, allowing amino acids to be
linked in the order specified by the mRNA code.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
RNA
polymerase
Nuclear
membrane
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27, step 1
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
2
mRNA
processing
RNA
polymerase
Nuclear
membrane
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27, steps 1–2
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
2
mRNA
processing
RNA
polymerase
Nuclear
membrane
3 Attachment of
ribosomal subunits
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27, steps 1–3
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
2
mRNA
processing
RNA
polymerase
Nuclear
membrane
Amino acid
tRNA
4 Translation
Growing peptide
chain
Incoming tRNA
bound to an
amino acid
Lys
Asp
3 Attachment of
ribosomal subunits
Outgoing
“empty” tRNA
Phe Trp
Anticodon
mRNA
AA G A C C
G AU UU C UG G A A A
Ribosome
Each tRNA molecule attaches at one end
to a specific amino acid. The anticodon of
the tRNA molecule pairs with the appropriate
codon on the mRNA, allowing amino acids to be
linked in the order specified by the mRNA code.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27, steps 1–4
Protein: Transcription and Translation
DNA
1 Transcription
2
RNA
polymerase
mRNA
processing
Nuclear
membrane
Amino acid
tRNA
4 Translation
Growing peptide
chain
Incoming tRNA
bound to an
amino acid
Lys
Asp
Outgoing
“empty” tRNA
3 Attachment of
ribosomal subunits
Phe Trp
Anticodon
mRNA
AA G A C C
G AU UU C UG G A A A
Ribosome
mRNA
5 Termination
Ribosomal
subunits
Completed
peptide
Each tRNA molecule attaches at one end
to a specific amino acid. The anticodon of
the tRNA molecule pairs with the appropriate
codon on the mRNA, allowing amino acids to be
linked in the order specified by the mRNA code.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-27, steps 1–5
Protein: Post-Translational Modification
 Protein folding
 Creates tertiary structure
 Cross-linkage
 Strong covalent bonds  disulfide
 Cleavage
 Addition of other molecules or groups
 Assembly into polymeric proteins
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Protein: Post-Translational Modification
and the Secretory Pathway
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 4-28
Summary
 Energy
 Chemical
 Transport
 Mechanical work
 Kinetic energy
 Potential energy
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary
 Chemical reactions
 Reactants
 Products
 Reaction rate
 Free energy and activation energy
 Exergonic versus endergonic reactions
 Reversible versus irreversible reactions
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary
 Enzymes
 Definition
 Characteristics
 Law of mass action
 Type of reactions
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary
 Metabolism
 Catabolic versus anabolic reactions
 Control of metabolic pathways
 Aerobic versus anaerobic pathways
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary
 ATP production
 Glycolysis
 Pyruvate metabolism
 Citric acid cycle
 Electron transport chain
 Glycogen, protein, and lipid metabolism
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Summary
 Synthetic pathways
 Gluconeogenesis
 Lipid synthesis
 Protein synthesis
 Transcription
 Translation
 Post-translational modification
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings