Download 1. Phylum Cnidaria: Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Animal communication wikipedia, lookup

Anti-predator adaptation wikipedia, lookup

Deception in animals wikipedia, lookup

Animal coloration wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Kingdom Animalia
In the following section we are going to examine five
types of animal form out of the many that exist. The
purpose being to compare the various major
structural features of these five selected models of
animals. These will be hydra, earthworm,
grasshopper, bony fish, and mammal. You should
learn the major features of each of these five
examples.
Then in the remainder of the course we will examine
functional requirements of animals in context of their
ecology and compare the structure of these five
groups in relation to these functional requirements.
Phylum Cnidaria: Cnidarians have
radial symmetry, a gastrovascular
cavity, and cnidocytes
• The cnidarians (hydras, jellies, sea anemones, and
coral animals) have a relatively simple body
construction.
• They are a diverse group with over 10,000 living
species, most of which are marine.
• The basic cnidarian body plan is a sac with a
central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular
cavity.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• This basic body plan has two variations: the sessile polyp
and the floating medusa.
• The cylindrical polyps, such as hydras and sea anemones,
adhere to the substratum by the aboral end and extend
their tentacles, waiting for prey.
• Medusas (also called jellies) are flattened,
Fig. 33.4
mouth-down versions
of polyps that move by
drifting passively and
by contacting their
bell-shaped bodies.
Some cnidarian exist only as
polyps. Others exist only as
medusas.
Still others pass sequentially
through both a medusa stage
and a polyp stage in their life
cycle.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Cnidarians are carnivores that
use tentacles arranged in a ring
around the mouth to capture
prey and push the food into the
gastrovascular chamber for
digestion.
– Batteries of cnidocytes on the
tentacles defend the animal or
capture prey.
• Organelles called cnidae
evert a thread that can inject
poison into the prey, or
stick to or entangle the
target.
– Cnidae called nematocysts are
stinging capsules.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Fig. 33.5
Phylum Annelida: Annelids are
segmented worms
• All annelids have
segmented bodies.
• There are about 15,000
species ranging in length
from less than 1 mm to 3
m for the giant Australian
earthworm.
• Annelids live in the sea,
most freshwater habitats,
and damp soil.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Earth worm (Class Oligocheata)
• The coelom of
the earthworm,
a typical annelid,
is partitioned by
septa, but the
digestive tract,
longitudinal blood
vessels, and
nerve
cords penetrate
the septa and
run the animal’s
length.
Fig. 33.23
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• While arachnids and
insects thrive on land,
most of the 40,000
species of
crustaceans remain
in marine and
freshwater
environments.
– A few crustaceans
are terrestrial or
semi-terrestrial.
• Crustaceans include
lobsters, crabs,
crayfish, shrimp, and
barnacles, among
many others.
Phylum Arthropoda
Fig. 33.35
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Phylum Arthropoda
Class Insecta
• In species diversity, insects (class Insecta) outnumber all
other forms of life combined.
• They live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh
water, and flying insects fill the air.
• They are rare, but not absent, from the sea.
• The study of insect, entomology is a vast field with many
subspecialties, including physiology, ecology, and
taxonomy.
• Class Insecta is divided into about 26 orders.
Grasshopper (Class Insecta)
Fig. 33.33
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings