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What are biomolecules?
The parts of a cell are made up of large, complex
What element is the basis of
The basic unit of biomolecules contain atoms of
carbon. Carbon atoms can form covalent bonds with
as many as four other atoms.
What is a monomer?
A monomer is a building block, a smaller unit that
when several are linked together they make a
What is a carbohydrate? List the
Carbohydrates are molecules made of sugars that
general structural ratio of a
contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of
carbohydrate and give an
1:2:1.Glucose is a common sugar found in grape
example of the most common
juice. Carbohydrates are made in chloroplast.
Structural formula for glucose
C6H12O6, and how it looks.
What are the two types of simple
Glucose is a monosaccharide, or “single sugar”,
sugars and what is the difference
monosaccharides are monomers of carbohydrates.
in the two? Then list an example
Monomers are linked by dehydration synthesis and
of each.
broken by hydrolysis. Two sugars can be linked to
make a disaccharide. Many sugars can be linked to
make a polysaccharide. Monosaccharides and
disaccharides are considered simple carbohydrates.
What is a complex carbohydrate?
Then give an example.
What is the role and functions of
Carbohydrates in the cells and
Polysaccharides are considered complex
carbohydrates such as cellulose in plants, chitin in
anthropods and glycogen in animals.
Cells use carbohydrates for sources of energy,
structural materials, and cellular identification.
Carbohydrates are a major source of energy for many
organisms, including humans.
What are Lipids and what are the
Lipids are another class of biomolecules, which
4 lipid categories?
includes fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes.
Lipids consist of chains of carbon atoms bonded to
each other and to hydrogen atoms. This structure
makes lipids repel water. Lipids are made in the
smooth ER.
What are the main functions of
The main functions of lipids include storing energy
and controlling water molecules.
What is the function of fat in the
The main purpose of fats is to store energy. Fats can
body and types of fat?
store energy even more efficiently than
carbohydrates. Unsaturated fats: liquid at room temp,
one or more double bonds between carbons in the
fatty acids allows for “kinks” in the tails of most plant
fats. Saturated fats: have only single C-C bonds in
fatty acid tails solid at room temp, most animal fats
like lard
Structure of a fat molecule.
Triglyceride (monomers: Glycerol + 3 fatty acids)
What is the function of
The structure of cell membranes depends on how this
molecule interacts with water. (monomers: glycerol, 2
fatty acids and a phospholipid)
What are proteins?
Proteins are chains of amino acids(monomer) that
twist and fold into certain shapes that determine what
the proteins do.
List 5 functions of proteins.
Proteins may be involved in structure, support,
movement, communication, transportation, and
carrying out chemical reactions
What are proteins made of? How
A protein is a molecule made up of amino acids,
do amino acids link together to
building blocks that link to form proteins. Proteins
form a long protein chain?
are made at the ribosomes in cells. Every amino acid
has an amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl(COOH)
group. Units of amino acids can form links called
peptide bonds. The side group or R-group gives an
amino acid its unique properties. Twenty different
amino acids are found in proteins, 8 are considered
What is the basic structure of a
What are Nucleic Acids?
A nucleic acid is a long chain of nucleotide units.
What are the 3 parts of a
A nucleotide (monomer) is a molecule made up of: a
sugar, a base, and a phosphate group.
What are the 2 most common
Nucleotides of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA,
Nucleic Acids and how are DNA
contain the sugar deoxyribose. Nucleotides of
& RNA different? Draw the DNA ribonucleic acid, or RNA, contain the sugar ribose.
structure and label the 3 parts?
DNA and RNA are made in the nucleus of cells.
What are the functions of Nucleic
Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary
Acids in the body?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is also nucleic acid
that has three phosphate groups and supplies energy
to cells. ATP is made in the mitochondria.