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Transcript
10/4 Warmup
1.
2.
3.
4.
Why are leaves green?
Why aren’t roots green?
What is the function of roots?
What do plant cells have that animal cells
do not have?
CELL THEORY
1. All living things are ________________________.
MADE OF CELLS
2. Cells are the basic unit of
STRUCTURE
FUNCTION
____________
& _____________
in an
organism.
life
(cell = basic unit of _____________)
3. Cells come from the reproduction
of ____________
cells
existing
Cell image: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/lmexer1a.htm
How are these cells the same?
How are they different?
10/5 warmup
• Make a venn diagram to compare and
contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
• Golgi apparatus:
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnK7RT
1q0bA&feature=related
• Plasma membrane:
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1KXib
LIOGY&feature=related
Chapter 7-2
Cell Structure and Function
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Nuclear envelope
Rough
endoplasmic
reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Ribosome (attached)
Ribosome (free)
Cell Membrane
Mitochondrion
Smooth
endoplasmic
reticulum
Centrioles
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved
CELL MEMBRANE
(also called plasma membrane)
• Barrier that surrounds the outside
of the cell
Outside
of cell
Proteins
Carbohydrate
chains
Cell
membrane
Inside
of cell
(cytoplasm)
Protein
channel
Lipid bilayer
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Images from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cellmembrane.html
http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
Acts as a boundary
Controls what enters and leaves cell
CYTOPLASM
(Between nucleus and cell membrane)
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/cytoplasm.html
Organelles suspended
in gel-like goo
ORGANELLEsmall structure with a
specific function (job)
Image from: http://faculty.stcc.cc.tn.us/jiwilliams/labprojectsmenu.htm
NUCLEUS
Largest organelle
in animal cells
Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
NUCLEUS
Surrounded by
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
(also called NUCLEAR MEMBRANE)
DOUBLE MEMBRANE
Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_11.GIF
NUCLEUS
NUCLEAR PORES
Openings to allow molecules to
move in and out of nucleus
Image from: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookCELL2.html
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Contains genetic material (DNA)
DNA is scrunched up
as CHROMOSOMES
in dividing cells
DNA is spread out
as CHROMATIN
in non-dividing cells
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Control center
of cell
Image from:
Genetic code tells the
cell’s parts what to do
Image from: http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm
NUCLEOLUS
Image from: http://lifesci.rutgers.edu/~babiarz/histo/cell/nuc3L.jpg
Dark spot in
nucleus =
NUCLEOLUS
__________
Makes RNA for ribosomes
CYTOSKELETON
Image from: http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/default.htm
• Helps cell maintain shape
• Help move organelles around
Made of PROTEINS:
MICROFILAMENTS (Actin)
&
MICROTUBULES (Tubulin)
Image from: © Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall; All rights reserved
CENTRIOLES
Appear during cell
division to guide
chromosomes apart
MITOCHONDRION
(plural=MITOCHONDRIA)
Look like
“little sausages”
Image from: http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl/CURR/kin150/Images/mitochondria.jpg
MITOCHONDRIA
Surrounded by a
DOUBLE membrane
Has its own DNA
Folded inner membrane
increases surface area
for more chemical
reactions
Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpe
MITOCHONDRIA
Come from
cytoplasm in EGG
You inherit your
mitochondria from
your mother!
http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/p14%5b1%5d.jpg
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Images from:
http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/mito.html
http://www.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookCHEM2.html
“Powerplant of cell”
Burns glucose to
release energy
Stores energy as ATP
Image by: Riedell
RIBOSOMES
• Made of PROTEINS and RNA
• Protein factory for cell
Join amino acids to make proteins

Image by: RIedell
Image from: http://www.ust.hk/roundtable/hi-tech.series/1_b1.jpg
RIBOSOMES
Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe
Can be attached to
Rough ER
OR
free in cytoplasm
Image from: http://www.mccc.edu/~chorba/celldiagram.htm
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Network of hollow membrane
tubules
2 KINDS:
SMOOTH or
ROUGH
Image from: http://www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_06/5_10B.GIF
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (Rough ER)
Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/er.html
Makes membrane
proteins and proteins
for export out of cell
Image from: http://www.biologyclass.net/endoplasmic.jpe
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (ER)
• Has RIBOSOMES
attached
• Proteins are made on
ribosomes and inserted
into Rough ER to be
modified and
transported
Image from: http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/cells/ER.jpg
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (smooth ER)
Image from: http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0073.JPG
• Has NO
ribosomes
attached
• Has enzymes for
special tasks
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (smooth ER)
Image from:http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20eight/smooth%20er.gif
•Makes membrane lipids (steroids)
•Regulates calcium (muscle cells)
•Destroys toxic substances (Liver)
GOLGI APPARATUS
(BODY)
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h
Image from: http://www.rsbs.anu.edu
• Pancake like
membrane
stacks
Modify, sort, & package
molecules from ER
for storage OR
transport out of cell
Image from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/golgi.h
LYSOSOMES
Animation from: http://vilenski.org/science/safari/cellstructure/lysosomes.html
Membrane bound sacs
that contain PROTEINS
called digestive enzymes
Digest food, unwanted molecules,
old organelles, cells, bacteria, etc
LYSOSOMES
See
lysosomes
in action:
Image modified from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html
LYSOSOMES
See LYSOSOME
MOVIE
Image from: http://www.people.virginia.edu/~rjh9u/lysosome.html
FLAGELLA & CILIA
Aid in cell movement
Made of
PROTEINS
called
MICROTUBULES
(9 + 2 arrangement)
Image from: http://www.stchs.org/science/courses/sbioa/metenergy/flagella.jpg
WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT
PLANT CELLS?
•
•
•
•
Cell wall
HUGE vacuoles
Chloroplasts
No centrioles
Plant vs Animal cells
CELL WALL
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/kids_space/images/brick_wall.jpg
Supports and
protects cell
http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm
Outside of
cell membrane
Made of carbohydrates & proteins
CELLULOSE
Plant cell walls are mainly _____________
VACUOLES
Image from: http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/plant_cell.gif
Storage space
http://library.thinkquest.org/3564/Cells/cell93.gif
VACUOLES
Image from: http://www.metoliusfriends.org/csca/images/tupperware.jpg
• Storage space for
WATER, salts,
proteins (enzymes),
carbohydrates, and
waste
Vacuoles SMALL in ANIMAL CELLS
NO VACUOLES IN BACTERIA
Contractile vacuoles control excess
water in cells
(HOMEOSTASIS)
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjun99/vidjun1.gif
1
CHLOROPLASTS
http://www.seorf.ohiou.edu/~tstork/compass.rose/photosynthesis/chloro_sun_bathing.gif
• Use energy from
sunlight to make
own food (glucose)
http://stallion.abac.peachnet.edu/sm/kmccrae/BIOL2050/Ch1-13/JpegArt1-13/04jpeg/04-28_chloroplasts_1.jpg
CHLOROPLASTS
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_essentials_2/cipl/04/HTML/source/04-17-chloroplast-nl.htm
• Surrounded by
DOUBLE
membrane
•Thylakoid membrane sacs contain
enzymes for photosynthesis
• Contains own DNA
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Smooth endoplasmic
reticulum
Vacuole
Ribosome
(free)
Chloroplast
Ribosome
(attached)
Cell
Membrane
Nuclear
envelope
Cell wall
Nucleolus
Golgi apparatus
Nucleus
Mitochondrion
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Plant Cell
Go to
Section:
DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL CELLS, PLANT CELLS, AND BACTERIA
ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL
BACTERIA
Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Cell membrane
Cell membrane
Cell membrane
Nuclear membrane
Nuclear membrane
NO cell wall
Cell wall made of
CELLULOSE
Cell wall made of
PEPTIDOGLYCAN
Has ribosomes
Has ribosomes
Has ribosomes
DNA in multiple
chromosomes
DNA in multiple
chromosomes
DNA is a single
circular ring
CYTOSKELETON
CYTOSKELETON
CYTOSKELETON
Small vacuoles
Really big vacuole
NO vacuoles
Has lysosomes
Has lysosomes
NO lysosomes
Has centrioles
NO centrioles
NO centrioles
NO chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
NO chloroplasts
SMALLER
SMALL
SMALLEST
NO nuclear membrane