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210-02 History of Psychology Welcome to Seminar for Unit 7 With Professor Kimberly Maring Today’s Focus • Three stages of Behaviorism • Skinner and Bandura and their contributions to the field. 3 Stages of Behaviorism • There are three stages in the progression of the behaviorist school of thought: – Watson is foundational for the beginning of behaviorism. 1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930) 3 Stages of Behaviorism 1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930) 2. Neobehaviorism (1930-1960) – Tolman Edward Chace Tolman (1886–1959) Hull Clark Leonard Hull (1884–1952) Skinner B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) 3 Stages of Behaviorism 1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930) 2. Neobehaviorism (1930-1960) – Tolman, Hull, Skinner 3. Neo-neobehaviorism or sociobehaviorism (1960-1990) Social Cognitive Psychology – Bandura, Rotter Stage 2 of Behaviorism Neobehaviorism with Tollman and Skinner Operationism • Percy W. Bridgeman (1882-1961) – respected physicist – Nobel prize-winner from Harvard – Insisted on discarding “pseudo-problems” (anything which cannot be measured; the soul; the conscience; the unseen) – Finished the index to his 7-volume book – Shipped to publisher – Killed himself; an end to existence where there is nothing beyond that which is material Operationism • A major characteristic of neobehaviorism • Sought to rid psychology of pseudo- problems • Worked at making the language of neobehaviorism precise, mathematical, measurable. Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959) • Purposive Behaviorism: Tolman’s system combined the objective study of behavior with the consideration of purposiveness or goal orientation in behavior. • Tolman saw 5 variables which contributed to purposive behavior. Purposive Behaviorism (Tolman) • Behavior is a function of 5 variables: – Environmental stimuli – Physiological drives – Heredity – Previous training – Age 1869 -- 1959 • Intervening Variables: Unobserved and inferred factors within the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Skinner developed the Operant chamber, or the Skinner box, to study operant conditioning. Pavlov studied respondent behavior – responses to conditioning 11 Baby in a Box Air crib, also called Skinner’s Baby in a Box Raised his second daughter in one 88F, 50% humidity Canvas mattress Air filter system Picture window Types of Reinforcers Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. 13 Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement refers to reinforcement being administered to each instance of a response • Intermittent reinforcement lies between continuous reinforcement and extinction An Example of Continuous Reinforcement • Each instance of a smile is reinforced Continuous Reinforcement Example of Fixed Ratio Reinforcement • Every fourth instance of a smile is reinforced Fixed Ratio of 4 Example of Variable Ratio Reinforcement Random instances of the behavior are reinforced Variable Ratio of 4 Schedules of Reinforcement Unpredictable (or variable) schedule produces more consistent responding than a fixed schedule. 18 Punishment An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows. 19 Punishment Although there may be some justification for occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it usually leads to negative effects. Conveys no information to the organism; what not to do, rather than what to do. 20 Stage 3 of Behaviorism Neo-neobehaviorism Social Cognitive Theory with Bandura and Rotter QUESTION • What types of behaviors are acquired as a result of observational learning? • How is modeling used to change behavior? Bandura's Experiments: Social Learning Theory Bandura's Bobo doll study (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive rewards and punishments. 23 Social Learning Theory Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have antisocial effects. 24 Television and Observational Learning Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express increased aggression. What do you think? 25 Albert Bandura (1925 - ) • Vicarious reinforcement • Self-Efficacy: One’s sense of self-esteem and competence in dealing with life’s problems. – To what degree do you feel you have some effect over what happens in your life? Julian B Rotter (1916 - ) Julian B. Rotter BP = f(E & RV) • Behavior Potential is a function of expectancy and reinforcement value. • The likelihood of a person exhibiting a specific behavior is a function of the probability that the behavior will lead to a given outcome and the desirability of that outcome. Julian B. Rotter 4 Main Components of Rotter’s Social Learning Theory 1. Behavior potential 2. Expectancy 3. Reinforcement value 4. The psychological situation. Rotter’s Locus of Control • External Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behavior is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstances • Internal Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behavior is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts. Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization •Max Wertheimer (1880–1943) •Phi Phenomenon •Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967) •Restructuring the perceptual field •Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) •Life space: all events that influence a person’s behavior Differences between Behaviorists and Gestalt Psychology • Behaviorists – Behaviorism refused • Gestalt Psychologists – Gestalt Psychology accepted the study to acknowledge the of consciousness but existence of criticized the consciousness. attempt to analyze it into elements. Behaviorist’s Response to Gestalt Psychology • Appreciated? – Nope! – “A prophet is not appreciated in his home town.” • Attacked – a lack of rigor in its definitions – Gestalt preoccupation with theory – Gestalt qualitative results and lack of statistical analysis References Littell, T. (2009). Power Point Presentation of Kaplan University. Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E. (2011). A history of modern psychology (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: WadsworthCengage Learning.