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Transcript
210-02 History of Psychology
Welcome to Seminar for Unit 7
With Professor Kimberly Maring
Today’s Focus
• Three stages of Behaviorism
• Skinner and Bandura and their contributions
to the field.
3 Stages of Behaviorism
• There are three stages in the progression of
the behaviorist school of thought:
– Watson is foundational for the beginning of
behaviorism.
1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930)
3 Stages of Behaviorism
1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930)
2. Neobehaviorism (1930-1960)
– Tolman
Edward Chace Tolman
(1886–1959)
Hull
Clark Leonard Hull
(1884–1952)
Skinner
B. F. Skinner
(1904–1990)
3 Stages of Behaviorism
1. Watson’s Behaviorism (1915-1930)
2. Neobehaviorism (1930-1960)
– Tolman, Hull, Skinner
3. Neo-neobehaviorism or
sociobehaviorism (1960-1990)
Social Cognitive Psychology
– Bandura, Rotter
Stage 2 of Behaviorism
Neobehaviorism
with Tollman and Skinner
Operationism
• Percy W. Bridgeman (1882-1961)
– respected physicist
– Nobel prize-winner from Harvard
– Insisted on discarding “pseudo-problems”
(anything which cannot be measured; the soul;
the conscience; the unseen)
– Finished the index to his 7-volume book
– Shipped to publisher
– Killed himself; an end to existence where there is
nothing beyond that which is material
Operationism
• A major characteristic of neobehaviorism
• Sought to rid psychology of pseudo-
problems
• Worked at making the language of
neobehaviorism precise, mathematical,
measurable.
Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959)
• Purposive Behaviorism: Tolman’s system
combined the objective study of behavior with
the consideration of purposiveness or goal
orientation in behavior.
• Tolman saw 5 variables which contributed to
purposive behavior.
Purposive Behaviorism (Tolman)
• Behavior is a function of 5 variables:
– Environmental stimuli
– Physiological drives
– Heredity
– Previous training
– Age
1869 -- 1959
• Intervening Variables: Unobserved and
inferred factors within the organism that are
the actual determinants of behavior.
Skinner and
Operant Conditioning
Skinner developed the Operant
chamber, or the Skinner box,
to study operant conditioning.
Pavlov studied respondent behavior – responses to conditioning
11
Baby in a Box
Air crib, also called Skinner’s Baby in
a Box
Raised his second daughter in one
88F, 50% humidity
Canvas mattress
Air filter system
Picture window
Types of Reinforcers
Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the
behavior it follows.
13
Schedules of Reinforcement
• Continuous
reinforcement refers to
reinforcement being
administered to each
instance of a response
• Intermittent
reinforcement lies
between continuous
reinforcement and
extinction
An Example of Continuous Reinforcement
• Each instance of a smile is reinforced
Continuous Reinforcement
Example of Fixed Ratio Reinforcement
• Every fourth instance of a smile is reinforced
Fixed Ratio of 4
Example of Variable Ratio Reinforcement
Random instances of the behavior are reinforced
Variable Ratio of 4
Schedules of Reinforcement
Unpredictable (or variable) schedule produces more
consistent responding than a fixed schedule.
18
Punishment
An aversive event that decreases the behavior it
follows.
19
Punishment
Although there may be some
justification for occasional punishment
(Larzelaere & Baumrind, 2002), it usually
leads to negative effects.
 Conveys no information to the
organism; what not to do, rather
than what to do.
20
Stage 3 of Behaviorism
Neo-neobehaviorism
Social Cognitive Theory
with Bandura and Rotter
QUESTION
• What types of behaviors are acquired as a
result of observational learning?
• How is modeling used to change behavior?
Bandura's Experiments: Social Learning
Theory
Bandura's Bobo doll study
(1961) indicated that
individuals (children)
learn through imitating
others who receive
rewards and
punishments.
23
Social Learning Theory
Bandura’s studies show
that antisocial models
(family, neighborhood or
TV) may have antisocial
effects.
24
Television and Observational Learning
Gentile et al., (2004)
shows that children in
elementary school who
are exposed to violent
television, videos, and
video games express
increased aggression.
What do you think?
25
Albert Bandura (1925 - )
• Vicarious reinforcement
• Self-Efficacy: One’s sense
of self-esteem and
competence in dealing with
life’s problems.
– To what degree do you feel
you have some effect over
what happens in your life?
Julian B Rotter
(1916 - )
Julian B. Rotter
BP = f(E & RV)
• Behavior Potential is a function of
expectancy and reinforcement value.
• The likelihood of a person exhibiting a
specific behavior is a function of the
probability that the behavior will lead to a
given outcome and the desirability of that
outcome.
Julian B. Rotter
4 Main Components
of Rotter’s Social
Learning Theory
1. Behavior potential
2. Expectancy
3. Reinforcement value
4. The psychological situation.
Rotter’s Locus of Control
• External Locus of Control
Individual believes that his/her behavior is
guided by fate, luck, or other external
circumstances
• Internal Locus of Control
Individual believes that his/her behavior is
guided by his/her personal decisions and
efforts.
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual
Organization
•Max Wertheimer (1880–1943)
•Phi Phenomenon
•Wolfgang Köhler (1887–1967)
•Restructuring the perceptual field
•Kurt Lewin (1890–1947)
•Life space: all events that
influence a person’s behavior
Differences between Behaviorists
and Gestalt Psychology
• Behaviorists
– Behaviorism refused
• Gestalt Psychologists
– Gestalt Psychology
accepted the study
to acknowledge the
of consciousness but
existence of
criticized the
consciousness.
attempt to analyze it
into elements.
Behaviorist’s Response
to Gestalt Psychology
• Appreciated?
– Nope!
– “A prophet is not
appreciated in his
home town.”
• Attacked
– a lack of rigor in its
definitions
– Gestalt
preoccupation with
theory
– Gestalt qualitative
results and lack of
statistical analysis
References
Littell, T. (2009). Power Point
Presentation of Kaplan University.
Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E. (2011). A
history of modern psychology (10th
ed.). Belmont, CA: WadsworthCengage Learning.