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Organic compounds Organic compounds A compound is organic when it contains C, H, usually O, and energy. The main four Carbohydrates: aka carbs or carbos. Quick source of energy. ALWAYS HAVE C, H, and O. Organic compounds Used by cells to store and release energy Carbohydrates: example glucose C6H12O6 Carbohydrate Organic compounds Lipids: fats, waxes, oils, steroids. LOTS of energy. Animal fat bad Plant fat good Lipids Cells use lipids for energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings. Major components of the membrane that surround all living cells Organic compounds Proteins: Chains of amino acids, contain N. (enzymes are proteins) Proteins Provide structure for tissue and organs and carry out cell metabolism. Metabolism: all the chemical reactions that occur within an organism. The basic building blocks are amino acids (a.a.) A structural building block of many organism Enzymes are proteins Protein Cont. Important for contraction of muscle tissue, transporting oxygen in the blood stream, providing immunity, regulation of proteins, and carrying out reactions. Example: Enzyme Enzyme Organic Molecules: Nucleic Acids A complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code smaller subunits are nucleotides DNA, RNA (basically sugar with phosphates) Synthesis Vs. Decomposition Synthesis: chemical reactions in order to get a product Decomposition: chemical reactions in order to break up products Anabolism Builds large molecules from smaller ones, requires energy. A + B + energy AB Examples of Anabolism: Increased body size Fat storage growth muscle build up. Anabolic hormones Growth hormone Testosterone estrogen Catabolism: Breaks down larger molecules (decomposition). releases energy for the maintenance of living cells. AB A + B + energy Synthesis Vs. Decomposition Examples of decomposition: Fat break down Metabolism Make ATP Catabolic Hormones glucagen Acids and Bases pH is a measurement of + Hydrogen ion (H ) in a solution. + Acid = High H low OH + Base= Low H High OH pH Scale The scale goes from 1 to 14. 1-6 are acidic 7 is neutral 8-14 are basic pH Bloods pH is about 7.35-7.45. So is our blood basic or acidic? pH Scale Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a strong acid. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base. The pH of body fluids is 7.35, 7.45. If the pH is altered below or above the norm it will disrupt the stability of cell membranes, alter protein structure, and change the activities of important enzymes. Below 7.35-acidosis Above 7.45-alkalosis Affects the nervous system and cardiovascular system.