Regulation of the phosphotransferase system (PTS)
... of amino acids. It co-metabolizes most substrates, such as glucose and sucrose. The uptake and
concomitant phosphorylation of those two substrates is mediated by the phosphoenolpyruvate
(PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), consisting of the common proteins HPr and EI,
and an array of sub ...
Towards functional effects of polyphenols : modulation of energy
... Polyphenols are produced by plants in a process known as secondary
metabolism. Secondary metabolites are a large class of compounds that
enable plants to interact with their environment and have physiological
functions different from those of the primary metabolites, like
carbohydrates, proteins and ...
... Each Candidate must show on demand his/her Admission Card to the Invigilator.
accelerated glucose discoloration method
... D-glucose is a central substance for the human metabolism since it is a source of energy and a
metabolic intermediate. Most of this energy is delivered through aerobic or anaerobic respiration.
In human metabolism glucose is critical as a precursor for the production of proteins and in lipid
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... courses may be substituted by petition for a maximum of two
required elective courses in biology (3-4 credits of independent
study or research per substituted course). The subject area of the
independent study or research will determine which biological
subject areas the credits satisfy.
Metabolic downregulation during diapause in embryos of Artemia
... freezing and drying (Crowe et al. 2005). Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the ability
of molecules like trehalose to protect the structure and function of plasma membranes and
proteins (Crowe et al. 1987, Crowe et al. 2005, Timasheff 2002). The ability of trehalose to
stabilize macromolec ...
Acute hibernation decreases myocardial pyruvate carboxylation and
... efflux in the hibernating or ischemic myocardium is not
known. Opie (20) reported a 33% decrease in myocardial citrate content after 30 min of severe ischemia (an
⬃90% reduction in flow) in dogs; however, the actual
rate of citrate efflux from the heart was not measured.
Evidence for a role of CAC i ...
Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Streptococcus Species by
... environmental factors . Although diverse, there are common features among all biofilms: (i) cells
in the biofilm are glued together by an extracellular matrix made of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and
occasionally nucleic acids; (ii) biofilm formation is initiated by environmental and bacterial ...
Mechanisms of animal diapause: recent
... this remains to be demonstrated. The mechanisms associated
with this effect have not been fully characterized, but they must
act downstream of all three genetic pathways that control dauer
entry, as the suppression has not been shown to be pathwayspecific.
AMPK as a downstream effector. Just as DAF- ...
Müller Cells in the Healthy Retina
... Müller cells (Figs. 1.17c, d, 2.1, 2.5, 2.9, 2.13, and 2.31) are radial glial cells that
reside in a part of the adult CNS. As such, they share the basic bipolar morphology
of radial glial cells (Figs. 1.1 and 1.4) and possess the complete set of principal
glial cell processes/contact types (Fig. 1. ...
serum-free media for cell culture
... from foetuses removed from cows found pregnant at slaughter. The foetus is removed during evisceration and
blood extracted via cardiac puncture without any anaesthesia.
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA REPLICATION IN PRE
... I would also like to thank Professor Keith Campbell and members of his research group at the
University of Nottingham for the valuable training I received in porcine in vitro fertilisation
and nuclear transfer techniques, without which this thesis would not exist.
TEMPERATURE, NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILITY
... Onions (Allium cepa L.) are valued primarily for their ability to infuse flavor into
the diet. Flavor development in onion occurs when intact tissue is crushed and vacuoles
are lysed, releasing the enzyme alliinase. Alliinase hydrolyzes the S-alk(en)yl cysteine
sulfoxides (ACSO) that are found in th ...
Concepts of citrate production and secretion by prostate 1. Metabolic
... are not associated with the citrate producing function of prostate. Nevertheless, it has
become important to determine the distribution of citrate in prostate, particularly the
epithelial intracellular concentration. For this, VP provides an appropriate model.
Teased VP fragments cleaned of extraneo ...
Acrylamide Reduction in Potato Chips by Selection of
... as polyphenol oxidase and to reduce the oil uptake by gelatinization of the surface starch. Lower
blanching temperatures would, however, require much longer blanching time (Mestdagh et al.,
2008b; Pedreschi et al., 2006). There are many reports that claim a reduction of the acrylamide
formation in p ...
Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY
... and as starch in plants. Glycogen and starch can be degraded
to release glucose monomers that can fuel energy production
via glycolysis or serve as precursors in biosynthesis reactions.
Metabolic regulation via intracellular pH - AJP
... Although efforts to determine the relative acidity of
intracellular fluids date back nearly to the beginning of
this century, only within the last eight years have reliable
examples of intracellular pH (pHi) changes accompanying defined metabolic transitions been reported (Table
1). Indeed, principa ...
Effect of vitamin C on collagen biosynthesis and degree of
... Promoting the synthesis of new collagen
There are many ways to promote the synthesis of new, healthy
collagen: (i) Provide the skin with a reserve of vitamin C. As a
necessary cofactor in collagen synthesis, vitamin C is proved to
increase the production of collagen. It is shown that extended
Acetate formation in the photoheterotrophic bacterium Chloroflexus
... during photohetero trophic growth on glucose and in resting cell suspensions.
Up to 1.5 mol acetate per mol glucose were formed. In acetate-forming cells,
the activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, usually involved in
acetate formation in Bacteria, could not be detected; instead, th ...
Intracellular Localization of Interleukin-6 in
... granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).2-5
We have previously reported that human asthmatic peripheral
blood eosinophils express mRNA for IL-6.6 In addition, IL-6–
positive eosinophils have been detected in blood from normal
donors, suggesting that IL-6 may be constitutively synth ...
Unit: Carbohydrates (Glucose)
... of energy. These are the brain (by far the most important glucose consumer) followed to a much
lesser extent by red blood cells, platelets, leukocytes and the kidney medulla. Other tissues
readily oxidize fatty acids and ketone for energy purposes. Plasma glucose levels are maintained
during fasting ...
Lactate distribution in culture medium of human myometrial biopsies
... an identical efflux pattern of lactate with anaerobic incubation
conditions during the first 4 h of incubation, the aerobic
incubation conditions displayed subsequently a different release pattern of lactate. This was most probably because of the
bidirectional character of the fluxes when reentry of ...
Full Text - Global Science Books
... chrome B is probably not involved in the induction of tuberization, but rather involved in a negative regulatory mechanism that prevents tuberization in a non-inductive photoperiod, LD or SD with night break.
Temperature is also a major environmental factor controlling potato tuberization. Low tempe ...
Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science. The word cryobiology is derived from the Greek words κρῧος [kryos], « cold », βίος [bios], « life », and λόγος [logos], « word » (hence science). In practice, cryobiology is the study of biological material or systems at temperatures below normal. Materials or systems studied may include proteins, cells, tissues, organs, or whole organisms. Temperatures may range from moderately hypothermic conditions to cryogenic temperatures.