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Basic Biochemistry
VERY BASIC
Matter
• Anything that has mass and takes up
space.
• Anything that is not matter is energy
Atom
• Smallest particle an element can be
broken down into and still retain all of its
characteristics
• All matter is made of atoms
Substance
• Anything you can represent with a
chemical formula or symbol
• Elements
Al, U, He,
• Compounds
H2O CO2 C6H12O6
Element
• A substance that consists of only one type
of atom
Compound
• Two or more elements chemically
combined
• A chemical formula can be written
• Elements are in set proportions
• ex. H2O
CO2 C6H12O6
Mixture
• Two or more substances not chemically
combined
• Can be separated back out.
• No definite proportion of substances
Solutions
• Solution- a mixture between a solid and
liquid in which the solid dissolves.
ex. Salt water
• Solvent- The liquid of a solution
• Solute- The solid dissolved in the liquid
(Dissolved Particles)
Organic Molecules
• Molecules common in or from living or
once living things
• Carbon is the base element found in all
organic compounds
• Four types of organic compounds
-Carbohydrates
-Lipids
-Proteins
-Nucleic acids
Carbohydrates
• Have the formula CxH2xOx
•
•
Includes starch, cellulose, and glucose
Generally used for energy
Proteins
•
•
Used for structure and support
Made up of amino acids
Lipids
• Includes fats and oils
Nucleic Acids
• DNA and RNA
• Composed of sugar, phosphate groups
and nitrogen bases