Download The Major Theorists

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Verbal Behavior wikipedia, lookup

Applied behavior analysis wikipedia, lookup

Thin-slicing wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Moral disengagement wikipedia, lookup

Social psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behavioral modernity wikipedia, lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship wikipedia, lookup

Enactivism wikipedia, lookup

Piaget's theory of cognitive development wikipedia, lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia, lookup

Theory of planned behavior wikipedia, lookup

Social perception wikipedia, lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia, lookup

Learning theory (education) wikipedia, lookup

Sociobiology wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development wikipedia, lookup

Transtheoretical model wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Developmental psychology wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive development wikipedia, lookup

Albert Bandura wikipedia, lookup

Social cognitive theory wikipedia, lookup

Montessori – Piaget – Vygotsky – Erikson – Skinner –
Bandura – Maslow - Kohlberg
Behaviorist Theory
Behaviorism, also known as behavioral
psychology, is a theory of learning
based upon the idea that all behaviors
are acquired through conditioning.
Conditioning occurs through interaction
with the environment. Behaviorists
believe that our responses to
environmental stimuli shape our
Constructivist Theory
The belief that learning is an active
process in which learners construct their
own meaning based on prior knowledge
and experience
Cognitivist Theory
A response to the problems with the
behaviorist theory
 Belief that the mind is a “black box”
 Learning is explained as a “recall” of
stored information.
 Instruction usually grabs the attention of
learners and helps make sense of the
information so it can be more readily
stored (learned) for later recall.
Social Learning Theory
People learn from one another, via
observation, imitating and modeling.
 It has been called the bridge between
behaviorist and cognitive learning
theories because it includes attention,
memory and motivation
Jean Piaget
Primary Components of Jean Piaget’s
4-Stage Model
Important Concepts within
Piaget’s Model
Schemes: Mental model of the world
that we use to represent, organize, and
interpret our experiences
 Assimilation: Integrating new
experiences into an existing scheme
 Accommodation: Changing or modifying
a scheme in order to incorporate a new
Four Major Stages of Piaget’s
Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
2. Preoperational (2-7 years)
3. Concrete Operations (7-11
4. Formal Operations (12+
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years)
Infant’s world consists of the immediate
 Interact and learn by sensory input
(hearing, feeling, seeing) with motor
 Gradually learn to control their own
bodies and objects in the external world
 The ultimate task at this stage is to
achieve the sense that objects go on
existing even when we cannot see them
(Object Constancy/Permanence).
Preoperational Stage
(2-6/7 years)
Developing ability to manipulate images
and symbols, especially language
 Play becomes key in learning. Begin to
see use of symbolism in pretend play
(e.g. Use a broomstick as a “horsey”).
 Child’s view of the world is egocentric.
 Logical organization of thoughts remains
undeveloped (e.g. unable to apply
principles of conservation).
Concrete Operations
(6/7-12 Years)
Perform logical operations, but only in
relation to concrete objects, not abstract
 Basic math skills developed (counting,
addition, subtraction) as well as an
understanding of conservation.
 Can sort items into categories, reverse
the direction of their thinking, and think
about two concepts simultaneously.
 Able to understand a situation from
another person’s perspective.
Refers to the ability to determine that a
certain quantity will remain the same
despite adjustment of the container
shape or apparent size
Formal Operations
(12+ years)
Begin to think logically and abstractly,
including speculations about what might
happen in the future
 Theoretical, philosophical, and scientific
reasoning becomes possible.
 Abstract concepts and moral values
become as important as concrete
 With these newly developed thinking
abilities, adolescents begin to reinterpret
and revise their knowledge base.
Lev Vygotsky
Different than Piaget’s image of the individual
constructing understanding alone
 Everything is social
Vygotsky saw cognitive development as
depending more on interactions with people
& tools in the child’s world.
 Tools are real: pens, paper, computers;
 or Tools are symbols: language, math systems,
The Big Ideas…
Explained complex learning through Guided
 Explained things that are taught rather than
discovered (reading, writing etc.)
a way to “share the thinking load”
Helping a novice accomplish a complex task
Assistance can be physical or mental & come from
adults or peers
Scaffolding: where the more knowledgeable other
provides some type of structure.
The Big Ideas…
Vygotsky developed the theory of the Zone of
proximal development (ZPD)
 The distance between where a learner is at
developmentally on their own & where a learner
could be with the help of a more knowledgeable
 A more knowledgeable other can be an adult or a
peer, helping a learner in this way is to scaffold
their learning. Scaffolding occurs through the
process of internalization… mediated by language
and thought.
Examples of Guided
A mother sitting with her toddler singing, “Baa,
baa black sheep have you any wool, yes sir,
yes sir ….” at this point the mother pauses and
the child sings loudly, “THREE BAGS FULL!.”
 How is this guided participation?
Examples of Guided Participation
A 6-year old lost a toy & asks her father for
help. The father asks her where she last saw
the toy. The child says, I can’t remember.” He
asks a series of questions – “Did you have it
in your room? Outside?” To each question the
child answers“No.” When he asks, “In the
car?”, she says “I think so” and finds the toy in
the car.
 In this story, who found the toy?
Examples of Guided Participation
Think back to your days of driver’s ed. and
driving around with your parents with your
temporary driver’s license.
 In what ways did your parent or driving instructor
provide guided participation for you?
Vygotsky and Schools
Emphasized social learning
 We can often complete harder tasks with someone
else than we could alone.
○ Collaborative learning, group presentations, group
Zone of Proximal Development
 The teacher considers how much scaffolding to give
a student to help them learn.
A push for“authentic learning”
 Learning is tied to the context it is in.
Motivation & Vygotsky
This view emphasizes how people’s
identities are formed by their participation
in a group.
 Students can be motivated to learn by
participating in communities where learning is
○ Ex: Children want to learn to read & write to
become members of the“literary club” and to
be able to participate and interact with the
written world.
Vygotsky’s Words…
“It is through others that we become
 All learning is social
“What a child can do in co-operation
today he can do alone tomorrow.”
 Guided participation, ZPD, scaffolding
Maria Montessori
Key Goals of a Montessori
To foster competent, responsible, adaptive
citizens who are lifelong learners and
problem solvers
 To promote learning in an inquiring,
cooperative, nurturing atmosphere through
self and teacher initiated experiences
 To support learning through the senses, by
manipulating materials and interacting with
others, leading to the abstract
understanding of ideas
Key Goals Continued
To consider the individual as a whole:
physical, emotional, social, aesthetic,
spiritual, and cognitive needs are
To respect oneself, others, the
environment, and all life
Infuse both joy AND challenge in learning
Nurture a child’s mind AND spirit
Supports a child’s abilities AND interests
Seguin’s Three Step Lesson
Naming (Introduction) – “This is a dog.”
 Recognizing (Identification) – “Show me
the dog.”
 Remembering (Cognition) – “What is
 Once they can remember it, they have
learned it.
Children have such absorbent minds.
Casa Dei Bambini
The first ‘children’s house.”
 The Montessori Method is born.
Montessori’s Four Planes
Each plane is marked by physical,
social, and psychological characteristics.
 The argument of traditional education
vs. education based on stages of human
Linear vs. Peaks & Valleys
Traditional education is based on the
assumption of linear development.
 Montessori education is geared to the
peaks and valleys of human
First Plane: Birth to Age 6
Development of the self
 Sensitive periods
 The senses are developing.
Second Plane: Age 6 to 12
Developing sense of morality and justice
 Intellectual period
 Development of reasoning skills: “How?”
and “Why?” questions
Third Plane: Age 12 to 18
Needs in adolescence are similar to
those in early childhood: the formation of
the self
Fourth Plane: Age 18 to 24
Adulthood: role in society, experiences
that expand human potential
The Prepared Environment
The learning environment should be
designed to facilitate independent
learning and exploration of the child.
 The prepared environment is a calm,
ordered, aesthetically pleasing space
designed to meet the child’s needs and
The Prepared Environment
The prepared environment consists of a
wide variety of multisensory learning
materials that are organized by different
curriculum areas: Sensorial, Practical Life,
Language, Math, Cultural and Science.
 Materials are organized in a sequence that
begins with the simplest, most concrete
representation of the subject matter,
making a gradual progression to the
The Prepared Environment
The Montessori prepared environment
consists of three kinds of materials:
1. Materials through which a child can
develop his skills for independence and
academic knowledge
2. Art materials (including writing tools) for
the expression of self
3. Materials for the maintenance of the
classroom so a child can develop pride
and responsibility for his own environment
The Montessori Teacher
The Montessori teacher (originally called
a “Directress”) acts as a:
 designer of the environment
 facilitator of learning
 Role model
 record keeper, and
 meticulous observer of each child’s
intellectual, social, and emotional growth.
The Prepared Environment
The less tangible aspects of the
Montessori prepared environment are
the factors that nurture the child’s social
and emotional growth:
 Strong sense of community
 Deep respect for child as an individual
 Multi-age classroom structure
 Freedom within limits
How Do Children Learn?
Children learn by doing.
 Children learn from each other.
 Children learn best in an atmosphere of:
 mutual respect
 trust, and
 encouragement.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral
Moral Development
Moral development
is the gradual
development of an
individuals concept of
right or wrong –
conscious, religious
values, social attitudes
and certain behavior.
Moral Dilemmas
Social issues with 2+ solutions
What was Robin Hood’s moral dilemma?
Kohlberg's Theory
This theory is a stage theory. In other words, everyone goes through
the stages sequentially without skipping any stage.
However, movement through these stages are not natural, that is
people do not automatically move from one stage to the next as they
mature. In stage development, movement occurs when a person
notices inadequacies in his or her present way of coping with a given
moral dilemma.
According to stage theory, people cannot understand moral reasoning
more than one stage ahead of their own. For example, a person in
Stage 1 can understand Stage 2 reasoning but nothing beyond that.
Kohlberg’s Six Stages
Pre-Conventional Moral Development
 Stage 1
 Stage 2
Conventional Moral Development
 Stage 3
 Stage 4
Post-Conventional Moral
 Stage 5
 Stage 6
Level 1: Preconventional Morality 0-9 years
Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
Especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of
reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.
Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment
Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished
Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that
authority has the power to inflict pain
Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-being
Stage 2 – Naively Egotistical
At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and
judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. Reciprocity is possible, but
only if it serves one's own interests.
Is motivated by vengeance or “an eye for an eye” philosophy
Is self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous
Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless
Believes that the end justifies the means
Will do a favor only to get a favor
Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
of need
Level 2: Conventional Morality 10-15 years
Stage 3 – “Good Boy-Good Girl” Orientation
This stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations
and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration
of how choices influence relationships.
peer approval very important
that intensions are as important as deeds and expects others to accept
intentions or promises in place of deeds
Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspective
Stage 4 – Law and Social Order
At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a
whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by
following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.
Is a duty doer who believes in
Respects authority and obeys
rigid rules that should not be changed
it without question
Supports the rights of the majority without concern for those in the minority
Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
Level 3: Postconventional Morality – 16+
Stage 5 - Legalistic Social Contract
At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of
other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of
the society should agree upon these standards.
Is motivated by the belief in the greatest amount of good for the greatest
Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule
Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual
Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system
number of people
Stage 6 – Universal Ethical Principles
Kolhberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles
and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of
justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
that there are higher moral principles than those represented by social rules and
Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected
Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
The Heinz Dilemma:
A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one
drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that
a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was
expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug
cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for
a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to
everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together
about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife
was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the
druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money
from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal
the drug for his wife.
What would you do?
Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory of
Moral Development:
Does moral reasoning necessarily lead to moral behavior? Kohlberg's theory
is concerned with moral thinking, but there is a big difference between
knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions.
Is justice the only aspect of moral reasoning we should consider? Critics have
pointed out that Kohlberg's theory of moral development overemphasizes the
concept of justice when making moral choices. Other factors such as
compassion, caring, and other interpersonal feelings may play an important
part in moral reasoning.
Does Kohlberg's theory overemphasize Western philosophy? Individualistic
cultures emphasize personal rights while collectivist cultures stress the
importance of society and community. Eastern cultures may have different
moral outlooks that Kohlberg's theory does not account for.
Watch the Heinz Dilemma
Old Man
Little Boy
Lady 2
Stage of Development
For the following moral dilemma, describe a
response which might be given by someone in
each of the first four stages of Kohlberg's theory.
Jill goes shopping one day with her best friend,
Sujatha. Sujatha tries on a jumper and walks out
of the shop wearing it under her jacket. Jill is left to
face the store's security person who insists that Jill
names Sujatha and gives Sujatha's address. The
manager of the store tells Jill she will be in serious
trouble if she does not disclose Sujatha's name
and address. What should Jill do?
Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson’s
Childhood Stages of Conflict
Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 Year)
Description: Infants depend on others to
meet their basic needs, and therefore must
be able to blindly trust the caregivers to
provide them.
 Positive Outcome: If their needs are met
consistently and responsively, infants will
learn to trust their environment and people
in it.
 Negative Outcome: If needs are not
responsibly met, infant may view world as a
dangerous and unreliable place.
Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt
(1-2 Years)
Description: Toddlers learn to explore and do
things for themselves. Their self-control and
self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
Positive Outcome: If a child is encouraged to
explore and is reassured when mistakes are
made, he/she will develop confidence needed
to cope with future situations that require
choice, control, and independence.
Negative Outcome: If parents are
overprotective or extremely critical, child may
feel ashamed of behaviors and doubt his/her
Initiative Vs. Guilt (2-6 Years)
Description: Children begin to interact with
environment in more “adult like” manner as
motor and language skills develop. They learn to
maintain an eagerness for adventure and play,
while learning to control impulsive behavior.
Positive Outcome: If parents are encouraging, but
consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept
concept of right/wrong without guilt, and not feel
shame when using their imagination and engaging
in fantasy play.
Negative Outcome: If not, children may develop a
sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is
wrong to be independent.
Competence/Industry Vs.
Inferiority (6-12 Years)
Description: School is the important event
at this stage. Children learn to master basic
social and academic skills. Peers become
the key social agent and children begin to
compare themselves with others outside of
the family.
 Positive Outcome: If children can find
pleasure in learning, being productive, and
seeking success, they will develop a sense
of competence.
 Negative Outcome: If not, they will develop
feelings of inferiority.
Identity Vs. Role Confusion
(12-20 Years)
Description: This is the crossroad between
childhood and maturity when adolescents
ask "Who am I?" The key social agent is the
person’s society of peers.
 Positive Outcome: Adolescents who solve
this conflict successfully will develop a
strong identity, and will be ready to plan for
the future.
 Negative Outcome: If not, the adolescent
will sink into confusion, unable to make
decisions and choices about his/her role in
Putting It All Together
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs
Initiative vs Guilt
Initiative vs Guilt
Competence/Industry vs
Identity vs Role
Birth-1 Year of Age
Interacts and learns
by sensory and
motor experiences.
Begins learning to
control body and use
it to obtain needs.
Early stage learning
of object
Trust Vs Mistrust
Infants depend on
caregivers to
respond to their
communications and
meet their basic
Ages 1-2
Still interacts and
learns by sensory
and motor
experiences, but is
more efficient at
doing so.
The ability to walk
allows child to
expand his/her
sensory world.
Autonomy Vs.
Toddlers learn to
explore and do
things for
themselves. Their
self-control and selfconfidence begin to
develop at this
Ages 2-6/7
 Language
development is
 Fantasy/imaginary
play becomes key in
learning about and
expressing their
understanding of the
 Child’s view of the
world is egocentric.
 Formal logic is not a
part of their thinking.
Initiative Vs Guilt
 Children begin to
interact with
environment using
motor and language
 Impulse control is
initiated by external
 Guilt can often stem
from an egocentric
understanding of the
world around them.
Ages 6/7-12
Concrete Operations
 Perform logical
operations (i.e. basic
math skills,
categorical, thinking),
but only in relation to
concrete objects, not
abstract ideas.
 Able to understand a
situation from another
person’s perspective.
Competence Vs
School is a central
part of life at this
stage. Children learn
to master basic social
and academic skills.
Peers are the key
social agent and they
begin to compare
themselves to other
Ages 12-20
Formal Operations
 Abstract, theoretical,
philosophical, and
scientific reasoning
becomes possible.
 Long term cause and
effect speculations
begin to occur.
 Adolescents begin to
question, reinterpret
and revise their
previous knowledge
Identity Vs Role
Adolescents begin
to ask the question,
"Who am I?"
The adolescent
typically relies on
his/her society of
peers to help
resolve the inner
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs
Physiological Needs
Food: A Most Powerful Need
• South American
Rugby team
crashed in 1970
• Food was the most
pressing problem.
• They ate human
flesh for survival.
• Even the strongest
taboo was broken
to fill the basic
need for food.
Food: A Most Powerful Need
Ik tribe in Uganda forced to
give up hunting and live on
unfertile land
 long standing social mores
dissolve - people became
 “ngag,” word for food, also
becomes word for good
 parents steal food from
children, children from other
Hierarchy of Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Safety Needs
 from
physical attack
 from
emotional attack
 from
fatal disease
 from
 from extreme losses
(job, family members,
home, friends)
Safety: A Most Powerful Need
when frightened, our
thoughts and energies are
 threat of, or actual attack
creates “fight or flight”
 threats to safety can be
physical or emotional
Hierarchy of Needs
Love & Belonging
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Love and Belonging
 Inclusion
- part of a group:
colleagues, peers,
family, clubs
 Affection - love and
be loved
 Control - influence over
others and self
Love and Belonging:
A Most Powerful Need
Hierarchy of Needs
Love & Belonging
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Esteem Needs
emotional (ego)
 respect
from others
through: awards
 respect for self through:
Esteem from Self and Others:
A Most Powerful Need
Hierarchy of Needs
B- Needs
Higher needs
D- Needs
Love & Belonging
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
Some Self-Actualizing People from
Abraham Lincoln
Thomas Jefferson
Mahatma Gandhi
Albert Einstein
Eleanor Roosevelt
William James
Benedict Spinoza
Self-Actualization Needs
stop cruelty and exploitation
encourage talent in others
try to be a good human being
do work one considers worthwhile
enjoy taking on responsibilities
prefer intrinsic satisfaction
seek truth
give unselfish love
be just
B-Needs of the Self-Actualized
Perfection and
Justice and order
Qualities of the Self-Actualized
An non-hostile sense of humor
Intimate personal relationships
Acceptance of self and others
Spontaneity and simplicity
Freshness of appreciation
More peak experiences
Democratic values
Peak Experiences
Moments of Pure Bliss
Alfred Bandura
Social Cognitive Theory
Social Cognition
Bandura proposed two factors as the
major components of relatively
permanent change:
• Context
• Beliefs
There is a similar relationship between:
• Piaget and Information Processing
• Vygotsky and Social Cognition
Social Cognition
Bandura developed the concept of reciprocal
determinism to account for human behavior.
Social Cognition
Bandura believes that human beings have specific
abilities and that only reciprocal determinism can
explain their operation and interaction:
• Model and imitate
• Self-reflect
• Regulate own behavior
Observational Learning
Bandura’s earlier work on observational learning set
the stage for his work in social cognition.
Observational (or social) learning proposed two
primary modes of learning:
• Modeling
• Imitation
Observational Learning
Bandura hypothesized a four-step pattern that combined a
cognitive and operant view of learning.
notices something in the environment
remembers what was noticed
produces an action that is a copy of what
was noticed
consequence changes the probability the
behavior will be emitted again
Observational Learning
In a set of well-known experiments, called the "Bobo doll"
studies, Bandura showed that children (ages 3 to 6) would
change their behavior by simply watching others.
He observed three different groups of children:
• One group of children saw the child praised for
aggressive behavior
Observational Learning
In a set of well-known experiments, called the "Bobo doll"
studies, Bandura showed that children (ages 3 to 6) would
change their behavior by simply watching others.
He observed three different groups of children:
• A second group saw the child told to go sit down in a
corner and was not allowed to play with the toys.
Observational Learning
In a set of well-known experiments, called the "Bobo doll"
studies, Bandura showed that children (ages 3 to 6) would
change their behavior by simply watching others.
He observed three different groups of children:
• A third group group saw a film with the child simply
walking out of the room.
Observational Learning
Bandura and his colleagues also demonstrated that
viewing aggression by cartoon characters produces
more aggressive behavior than viewing live or filmed
aggressive behavior by adults.
Additionally, they demonstrated that having children
view prosocial behavior can reduce displays of
aggressive behavior.
Self-reflection is a second human quality and is
expressed in the concept of self-efficacy.
“Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s capabilities to
organize and execute the sources of action required
to manage prospective situations.” (Bandura, 1986)
Self-efficacy impacts:
• The choices we make
• The effort we put forth
• How long we persist when we confront obstacles
(especially in the face of failure)
• How we feel about ourselves, others, the task, etc.
Self-efficacy is influenced by:
• Mastery experiences
• Vicarious experiences
• Social persuasions
• Physiological states
Self-regulation is a third human capability and has
several subfunctions:
• Goal-setting
• Self-observation and monitoring
• Performance judgment and evaluation
• Self-reaction (e.g., self-satisfaction, self-worth,
Social Cognition
Bandura’s basic position is that
“People's level of motivation, affective states, and
actions are based more on what they believe than on
what is objectively the case.”
BF Skinner
Basic Premise
Behavior can be controlled by
consequences- type of reinforcement
following the behavior
Kinds of Behavior : Respondent
and Operant
Respondent behavior: responses made
to/elicited by specific environmental stimuli
 Ex: Reflexes (knee jerk)
Depends on reinforcement, directly related
to physical stimulus
 Conditioning: Higher level respondent
 Learning to substitute one stimulus for another
Respondent Behavior and
Ivan Pavlov: Classical conditioning
 Dogs salivate to neutral stimulus (sound of
owner’s feet) when previously only salivated
to sight of food
 Began sounding bell before and after
feeding dogs
 Eventually began to salivate to sound of bell
○ Demonstrates new meaning to previously
neutral stimulus (sound of bell)
Conditioned Responses
Reinforcement (consequences of behavior)
 Dogs learn to respond to bell because reward
follows (food)
 Strengthens response, increases likelihood of
repeating response in future
 Reinforcement is no longer given following the
conditioned stimulus
 Dogs not given food after sound of bell,
salivation response eventually stops
Kinds of Behavior: Operant
Not all behavior is a direct response to
environmental stimuli (respondent beh.)
 Nature and frequency of behavior
determined by reinforcement following
 Behavior that operates on the
environment and changes it
Operant Conditioning
Change in consequences of response
will affect the rate at which the response
 Most of human behavior learned this
 Behaviors that work are frequently
displayed; ineffective behaviors are not
 Personality
Schedules of Reinforcement
Patterns of rates of providing or
withholding reinforcers
 In everyday life, behavior is rarely
reinforced every time it occurs
Successive Approximation
Acquiring complex behaviors
 Reinforce as behavior comes closer to
resembling the desired final behavior
 Ex: Child learning to speak
Self-Control of Behavior
Behavior is controlled/modified by
external sources
 Nothing inside us (no internal
processes) determines behavior
 We can alter the impact of external
events through self-control
Self-Control Strategies
Stimulus avoidance: Stay away from
certain external stimuli
 Self-administered satiation: Cure bad
habits by overdoing the behavior
 Aversive stimulation: Unpleasant
 Self-reinforcement: Reward ourselves
Applying Operant Conditioning:
Behavior Modification
Behavior modification: apply principles
of reinforcement to bring about
behavioral changes
 Token economy: tokens given as
reinforcement for positive behaviors,
later redeem tokens for rewards
Positive Reinforcement, Negative
Reinforcement and Punishment
Positive reinforcement: Strengthen
response by providing desirable rewards
 Ex: Token economy
Negative reinforcement: Strengthen
response by removing aversive stimuli
 Ex: Prisoners-early release for good behavior
Punishment: Use aversive stimulus
following response to decrease likelihood
of behavior in the future
Assessment in Skinner’s Theory
Functional Analysis
 Frequency of behavior
 Situation in which behavior occurs
 Reinforcement for behavior
Must be evaluated to implement
behavior modification plan
Direct Observation of Behavior
Direct observation
 Self-reports: interviews and
 Physiological measurement: heart rate,
muscle tension, brain waves
 See effects of various stimuli on the body
Research: Reversal Experimental
Baseline: Subject’s normal behavior before
beginning experiment
 Conditioning: IV introduced- should
produce a change from baseline behavior
 Reversal: Remove IV influence to
determine if IV is responsible for change
from baseline behavior
 Reconditioning: Reintroduce IV provided it
is responsible for change from baseline