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Theories of the Development of Moral Reasoning, Attitudes & Beliefs: Kohlberg, Turiel, Gilligan REPORTED BY: Mavee Cabrera Joan Aoki Fatima Carlotta 3 Basic Components of Morality: • Cognitive Knowledge of ethical rules & judgments of what is good and what is bad. • Behavioral The person’s actual behavior, his response to situations involving ethical considerations. • Emotional It involves the person’s feelings and conduct in reaction to situations that need moral and ethical decisions. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Development: • Lawrence Kohlberg opines that the child’s cognitive capabilities determine the growth of his moral reasoning. Further, moral development builds on concepts acquired in various stages, such that attainment in each stage becomes a product of the previous stages. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Development: • Kohlberg experimented on this theory by interviewing boys aged 10 to 16. They were presented moral dilemmas and where made to decide whether to respect and follow the authority, obey the rules or ignore the rules, and respond to the needs and welfare of other people. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development: Level I – Preconventional Morality: • Stage 1 (Obedience & Punishment Orientation) Individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves. • Stage 2 (Naïve Hedonistic & Instrumental Orientation/ selfinterest driven) espouses the "what's in it for me" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever is in the individual's best interest. Level II – Conventional Morality: Conventional Rules & Conformity • Stage 3 (Good Boy Morality) The self enters society by filling social roles. Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society's accordance with the perceived role. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations, having learned that there is inherent value in doing so. • Stage 4 (Authority & Morality that Maintain the Social Order) It is important to obey laws, dictums and social conventions because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society. Level III – Postconventional Morality: Self Accepted Moral Principles • Stage 5 (Social Contract Driven) The world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights and values. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. • Stage 6 (Universal Ethical Principles Driven) Moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. Rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deontic moral action. Elliot Turiel’ Moral Rules: “Even very young children can distinguish moral rules from what are dictated by conventions & are accepted ways of doing things.” - Elliot Turiel (1983; as cited by Cobb 2001) • It is seen in standard of dressing and even in speech. • Moral rules manifest a concern for the welfare of others and are not influenced by opinion. Elliot Turiel’ Moral Rules: “ Moral acts such as hurting someone or hitting somebody as part of a game cannot be legitimized actions. The youngest children however were less clear about acts leading to psychological harm, such as name calling as part of game” - Cobb, 2001 Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development: • Carol Gilligan (1989) of Harvard University. • Speaks moral development which strikes a balance between male oriented theories as expounded by Kohlberg’s & Freud’s & insights from interviews with female. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development: • Most female think of morality more personally than males do. • More ethical. • Morality is to be treated in term of their responsibility to others rather than as the rights of individuals. • Male and females have different responsibilities. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development: • Females are more compassionate by nature and are careful and fair in their actions. • Females tend to see themselves in term of relationships with others. • Male have the tendency to view themselves as distinct and separate from others. • The concepts of separation and connectedness translate into their approaches to morality. “ The assumption that one is separate from others emphasizes the need for rules to regulate the conduct of human behaviour and actions of each with respect to others. The assumption that one is connected to others recognizes the responsibility each has for the other.” -Gilligan, 1982 as cited by Cobb 2001 Males and Females look at responsibility differently • Male - Conceived as not doing something that would transgress on the right of others as when one is guilty of a physical assault. • Female - Meeting the needs of others as in caring for the sick. 3 Moral Development level in females: • First Level - Primary concern is with one self. - When one sees caring for oneself as selfish and not congruent to responsibility to others. - Transition to next level occurs. • Second level - Female equate morality with goodness, selfsacrifice and caring for others. - When they meet problems in their relationships resulting from their exclusion from their own care. - Transition to next level occurs. • Third Level - Morality is equated with care for both themselves and others.