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Mores, Morality, Ethics Setting the Background for our Investigations Mores and Morality • Mores are the moral customs and moral rules that a group or society do as a matter of fact have. • “No shoes, no shirt, no entry.” “Do not spit in public.” • Moral, =principles of right and wrong and standards of conduct which are universally advocated, that is, are put forth as prescriptions which all persons who wish to be judged “moral” should follow. Features of a System of Morality • The first key question that any system of morality should answer is: “What things are good in themselves?” “What is the essential good that should be pursued or that should guide all that we do and are?” • Must distinguish intrinsic from extrinsic goods- “good in itself” “good as means” Features of a System of Morality • Thesis of a System of Morality- X is the ultimate good- self-interest, pleasure, duty. • System must offer central rule or principle to answer the question: “ when is an action judged morally right or wrong? “-Golden Rule, Autonomy, Caring 10 Commandments, Features of a System of Morality • Third question: “when is a person held to be morally responsible?” This leads us to questions of moral responsibility, autonomy, free choice, coercion, competence. In the law, it leads to the legal plea of insanity, age limits, determinism- Leopold and Loeb case. Features of a System of Morality • A fourth question to be answered is: “Does the end ever justify the means?” When, for example, is the use of violence justified, even for a good end? Is cheating okay if it is the means to a “good end?” Features of a System of Morality • Final question: is how does one resolve a conflict of principles or values? Autonomy versus beneficence; individual interest versus interests of others; freedom versus justice. Features of a System of Morality • System regarded as acceptable only if there are sound arguments in its favor. • An argument is sound only it its premises are true and the conclusion follows logically from them. • Ask: Are premises true? Does conclusion follow? )(Don’t think stronger because agree with it.