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PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT IDENTITY AND MORALS IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT • Developmental psychologists continue to disagree on issues of continuity versus discontinuity and stability versus change. • Some psychologists argue that adolescents must go through an identity crisis to achieve a sense of self. • Examples: Erik Erikson and the crisis of identity formation versus identity confusion, James Marcia’s four categories of crisis and commitment. • Other psychologists believe that adolescence is a smooth transition to adulthood, rather than a time of crisis and stress. • Examples: A.C. Petersen and the role of external events, Albert Bandura’s social learning theory, Margaret Mead and the influence of culture. MORAL DEVELOPMENT • Lawrence Kohlberg identified three levels of moral development, subdivided into six stages. • Level I: Preconventional morality – a childlike approach to right and wrong • Obedience and Punishment (good so you’re not punished) • Individualism and Exchange (more than one right view) • Level II: Conventional morality – internalize moral norms, but don’t question it • Good interpersonal relationships • Maintaining the Social Order • Level III: Postconventional morality – not everyone reaches this stange (10-15%) • Individual Rights (realize it’s not always what’s best for me) • Universal Principles (you have your own right and wrong, i.e. human rights, justice, inequality) • Moral development tends to occur in adolescence, when individuals gain the capacity for formal operations thinking.