kant06 - pantherFILE
... when I am in financial difficulty with no other
way of getting out of it, provided that I am or
was the lecturer in Phil 241 at UWM in spring
2003, in order to ease the strain on my
... High-tech medicine
Special issues: AIDS/ICU/organ transplantation
... necessary in order to hold a person morally
responsible for her/his actions]
Immanuel Kant (1724 * 1804)
... be esteemed much higher than all that can
be brought about by it in favor of any
inclination, nay even of the sum total of all
... So cannot base morality in any subjective, contingent or empirical feature of human
beings; cannot base morality on any subjective theory of the good.
DUTIES: perfect and imperfect; to self and others.
Onora O’Neill Kant’s End in Itself formulation of the Categorical Imperative (CI)
applied to pover ...
Euthanasia - Routledge
... and the ability to decide on the basis of
◦ Autonomy = freedom + reason
... suggest different solutions
• One must decide which framework they will
follow and “trump” the others
Kant and Moral Duties
... Morality seems to consist in various law-like principles, obligations,
that limit our freedom
“I want…” (desire) versus “I ought…” (duty)
Kant will show, however, that these moral duties issue from our truly
impartial rational desires, and so are expressions of our freedom
(“Laws of Freedom”)
Introduction to Medical Ethics
... The Blue layer: core principles in healthcare
• Create autonomy: autonomy can be thought of as a human quality of being
able to act, to flourish, to live life without impediments.
• Mending a broken leg or treating depression allows someone to go and live
and fulfil their potential.
• Respect auton ...
... Devised in modern medicine as a response
to body systems arrest or failure
Seen as something anyone can learn
Has a common sense appeal that it should
be given to everyone who experiences
cardiac or pulmonary arrest-”Why would
you not do it?”
Unlike other medical procedures, it
becomes a default ass ...
... damages the fabric of civil society and morality itself.
• The consequences to truth and lies are irrelevant. It is the nature of
the action itself that determines its rightness.
• If you tell the truth you are not legally (or morally) responsible for
what happens as a result, while if you tell a li ...
Introduction to Bioethics (ppt lecture)
... • Deciding appropriate forms of care
• Determining legitimate level of restraint
• Determining patient preferences without clear
instructions (Terri Schiavo)
• Providing services that take up tremendous
resource (e.g., multiple transplants)
Mores, Morality, Ethics
... Mores and Morality
• Mores are the moral customs and moral rules that a
group or society do as a matter of fact have.
• “No shoes, no shirt, no entry.”
“Do not spit in public.”
• Moral, =principles of right and wrong and standards
of conduct which are universally advocated, that is,
are put forth a ...
Principle of Double Effect
... • endorsed by most moral theories
• provide a framework that may facilitate resolution of
• four key principles: autonomy (respect for autonomy),
non-maleficence, beneficence, justice
• each principle needs to be weighed and balanced in
determining an optimal course of action
Ethics and Clinical Harm Reduction
... – Value theory: “What kinds of consequences are good
– Virtue theory: “What kind of character traits are
Power Point Presentation
... Autonomy of will is present when one
knowingly governs oneself in accordance
with universally valid moral principles
Heteronomy of will: the will’s determination by
persons or conditions other than oneself.
(“heteronomy”: any source of determining
influence or control over the will, internal or
... Act as if you live in a kingdom of ends
• This is a culmination of the two previous
The moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724
... wrong - this “inner moral law.” These requirements of reason constitute our duties.
One‟s moral motivation in doing an action is all-important, thus Kantian ethics is a
deontological (non-consequentialist) theory of ethics. The proper moral motivation
for doing our duties is the sense of duty itself ...
An Introduction to Medical Ethics
... • Which of the following patients would be fully
capable of making an autonomous decision?
A. A patient with bipolar schizophrenia who is demonstrating aggravated
behavior and is refusing his monthly haloperidol injection
A. A patient with dementia and a DVT who is refusing to take warfarin in the
Religious Morality 1
... seen by many as the best way – because
you take account of as many things as
possible and make your decision based on
all the facts while staying flexible about
the choice you make.
The Study of Ethics
... • His approach to Justice is one that maximizes
• Morality does not come from God; it comes
from within ourselves
• Morality- what is Right and Wrong- can be
ascertained through the use of Human
How Actions Can Be Morally Evaluated
... we are not free and thus cannot be morally
obligated to seek happiness: ought implies can
Because opinions differ about what happiness
is, we could never agree on moral principles
Consequences are often out of our control, so
we cannot be held responsible for our actions
We can hold ourselves ...
Kant`s moral philosophy is powerful and compelling. But it can
... Some people would rather be spared harsh truths at vulnerable moments, while others want the truth, however painful. You might
well conclude that, if you found yourself in your mother’s condition, you would rather not be told.
For Kant, however, this is the wrong question to ask. What matters is not ...
Autonomy (Ancient Greek: αὐτονομία autonomia from αὐτόνομος autonomos from αὐτο- auto- ""self"" and νόμος nomos, ""law"", hence when combined understood to mean ""one who gives oneself one's own law"") is a concept found in moral, political, and bioethical philosophy. Within these contexts, it is the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision. In moral and political philosophy, autonomy is often used as the basis for determining moral responsibility and accountability for one's actions. In medicine, respect for the autonomy of patients is an important goal, though it can conflict with a competing ethical principle, namely beneficence. Autonomy is also used to refer to the self-government of the people.