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Transcript
Unit 2
Environmental Learning Theory
Give me a dozen healthy infants, well‐
formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one of them at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select‐‐doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant‐
chief, and yes, even beggar‐man and thief, y
gg
regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors (Watson, 1924)
(
,
)
Behavioral Theories
Stimulus
Environment
– involuntary
– feelings
Classical Conditioning
• Pavlovian Cond.
– Respondent Cond.
d
d
Pavlov’s dogs
Operant Conditioning
Operant
Conditioning
• voluntary
Food
– Choose to do?
Ch
t d ?
• Law of effect
• Thorndikian Cond.
– Instrumental Cond.
Behavior
Conditioning
Continuous
No constructs
passive receptacle
tabula rasa
Types of Conditioning
Types of Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
• reflexive
Response
Lights
Salivate
Salivate
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned
Stimulus
Conditioned
Stimulus
Billy gets spanked
UCS
spanking
Unconditioned
Response
Conditioned
Response
CS
dad
UCR
cries
CR
cries
Classical Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
G
Generalization
li i
Di i i i
Discrimination
No UCS
Generalized S
milkman
CR
cries
CS
D d only
Dad
l
CR
cries
i
Classical Conditioning
Extinction
UCS
Loud noise
No UCS
CS
dad
Classical Conditioning
Phobias
h b
CR
Stops crying
CS
Furry objects
UCR
Cries
CR
cries
What would this theory predict
would be common phobias?
Classical Conditioning
Attraction
UCS
Compliments
CS
Mary
UCR
Feel good
CR
Feel Good
Classical Conditioning
How about a steak?
UCS
Stomach sensation
CS
Steak smell
UCR
vomiting
CR
nausea
What is wrong with this example?
One-Trial Learning?
Classical Conditioning
and Marketing
d
k
UCS
Music/football
CS
UCR
excitement
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Sd
Discriminative
stimulus
R
Sr
Target
Behavior
Outcome
Reinforcement
CR
excitement
Outcomes from behavior
Reinforcement
Any stimulus that increases the y
frequency of a behavior that it follows.
follows
How does this differ from a reward?
Give or
apply
Remove or
take away
Pleasant
Unpleasant
Positive
Reinforcement
Punishment
Punishment
or omission
Negative
Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
• Continuous Reinforcement:
Continuous Reinforcement:
– Reinforcement after each occurrence or the target behavior
– High rate of response
– rapid extinction
rapid extinction
• Partial Reinforcement
Ratio
Fixed
FR
Roofers
mastery
Variable
VR
sales
date requests
– also called Intermittent
l
ll d I t
itt t
Shaping the target behavior
Shaping the target behavior
• Discrimination
• extinction
i i
• Used to teach complex behaviors
FI
Monthly
paychecks
midterm/final
VI
Dress nicely
pop quizzes
Other Operant Terms
Other Operant Terms
• Stimulus generalization
Stimulus generalization
• Successive Approximations
S
i A
i ti
Interval
Applied Behavior Analysis
Behavior Modification
10
10
Return to
Baseline
8
Baseline
6
Baseline
8
6
Generalization
training
4
4
Treatment
Reintroduce
Intervention
Intervention
2
2
0
0
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
7
Behavior Modification Tips
• Use reinforcement or extinction rather than punishment when possible
– If you punish a behavior, reinforce a substitute
• Immediate Reinforcement:
– Reinforcement that promptly follows the target behavior.
• Ignore invisible, internal states
– Don’t assume you know some underlying motive. Focus on the effect of action on behavior
• Apply reinforcement to specific behaviors
A l
i f
tt
ifi b h i
• Start with continuous and fade to intermittent
Strengths
• Objective evaluation of treatments
• Direct
Di t behavior
b h i managementt
2
3
4
5
6
7
Problems with Operant Theories
•
•
•
•
•
Is Reinforcement untestable?
Is thought insignificant?
Generalization
Generalization Intrinsic Motivation
Beyond Freedom and dignity
Application to Learning
Application to Learning
• Meaningful vs. rote learning
Meaningful vs rote learning
• Behavioral Objectives
– Hedonism controlled action vs. moral development
Immediate Reinforcement
Immediate Reinforcement
• Does it need to be immediate?
Does it need to be immediate?
– Delayed retention effect
• Is it really reinforcement
– Reinforcing the wrong answer?
Reinforcing the wrong answer?
Self‐regulated
Behavior Modification
h i
difi i
• Self‐management
Self management
• Goal‐setting
• Self‐reinforcement
S lf i f
Social Cognitive Theory
formerly Social Learning Theory
Forethought and intentional
• Learned vs. enacted behaviors
– Acquisition v. Production
Acquisition v. Production
• Modeling
– the effects of observing a model
the effects of observing a model
• observational learning
–Vicarious reinforcement
• Inhibition/disinhibition
• social facilitation (cueing)
• arousal
– also verbal modeling; e.g., reading and telling
• Functional value
– goals and goal‐setting
goals and goal setting
– incentives
– standards
d d
– self‐efficacy
– mental life and imagination
– subjective probability of success
• Emulation modeling