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Name __________________________
VOCAB- Evolution
(Chapters 15 & 16)
CONVERGENT EVOLUTION- process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to
similar environments
ADAPTIVE RADIATION (DIVERGENT EVOLUTION) – process by which a single species or small group of species
evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms.
COEVOLUTION- process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM-pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of
more rapid change
MUTATION – A change in the DNA sequence caused by a mistake in DNA replication or exposure to radiation or
GENE POOL – All the genes, including all the different alleles, in a population
RELATIVE FREQUENCY – The number of times a certain allele occurs in a gene pool compared to the number of times
other alleles for that same gene occur
SINGLE-GENE TRAIT – A trait controlled by a single gene with two alleles
A trait (like skin color or intelligence) that is controlled by two or more genes
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION – The effect of natural selection when individuals at one end
of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at
the other end of the curve
STABILIZING SELECTION- The effect of natural selection when individuals near the center
of the normal curve of distribution have higher fitness than those at the extreme ends of the
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION- The effect of natural selection when individuals at the extreme
ends of the normal distribution curve have higher fitness than those near the center of the
GENETIC DRIFT- Changes in allele frequency in a small population that are due to random chance and don’t follow
the laws of probability
FOUNDER EFFECT- A change in allele frequencies due to the migration of a small subgroup of a population to a new
HARDY-WEINBERG PRINCIPLE – The idea that allele frequency will remain constant unless one or more factors cause
those frequencies to change
GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM- A situation in which the allele frequencies in a population do not change and the population
does not evolve