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Transcript
NAME ______________________________ DATE ________________PER _______________
FORMAT OF TEST:
 39 M/C
 6 Matching
 6 Short Answer
50 POINTS TOTAL
EVOLUTION TEST REVIEW SHEET
CHAPTER 10 QUESTIONS
1. The process by which species change over
time
2. Scientist who stated that individuals could
acquire traits during their lifetime and then
pass these on to their offspring
3. Was #2 above correct in his thoughts about
acquired characteristics being passed on?
Why or why not?
4. Who was the first to explain the mechanism
by which evolution could occur
5. How is artificial selection different from
natural selection?
6. Give two examples of artificial selection
7. Why did the finches and tortoises that
Darwin study on the Galapagos have
different features (beaks & shells/necks)?
8. The mechanism that Darwin proposed for
evolution
9. A beneficial trait that makes an organism
more successful in its environment
10. The process by which those organisms who
are better adapted to their environment
survive and reproduce more than those who
are not as well adapted
11. Why must organisms compete for
resources?
12. The four main points of Darwin’s theory of
natural selection.
What to Study:
 Ch 10 & 11 Notes
 Ch 10 & 11 SG’s
 This review sheet
Evolution
LAMARCK
NO – ONLY GENETIC CHANGES CAN BE
PASSED ON TO ONE’S OFFSPRING
Charles Darwin
Artificial = humans selecting for
favorable traits
Natural = environment selecting for
favorable traits
Fancy pigeons, cat & dog breeds,
modern corn
They adapted to the food sources
available on each island
NATURAL SELECTION
ADAPTATION
NATURAL SELECTION
BECAUSE THEY ARE LIMITED
OVERPRODUCTION – more offspring are
produced than survive
VARIATION – individuals are different
within a population
ADAPTATION - organisms with
beneficial traits are more likely to
survive
DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION – over
time, natural selection results in
organisms that can survive and
reproduce better in that environment
thus passing on those beneficial genes to
the next generation
13. A single organism’s genetic contribution to
the next generation (its ability to survive
longer and reproduce more)
14. Traces of organisms that existed in the past
15. Fossils helped Darwin decide the earth was
much _________ than people originally
thought.
16. The study of where organisms live on the
planet
17. What do the early embryo stages tell us
about vertebrates?
18. Anatomical features that are similar in
structure, but may be different in function.
(Your arm and your cat’s front leg)
19. What do #18 provide evidence of?
20. Structures that have same function but
evolved independently with a different
design (ex/bird wing & insect wing)
21. A structure that seem to serve no useful
function but resemble structures that have
functional roles in other organisms
(appendix, hind leg bones in snakes &
whales)
22. The fact that different species can have
similar macromolecules (proteins, DNA
sequences) proves that they have descended
from a ______ ________
23. When comparing macromolecules (like
protein sequences or DNA) what is the rule
for evolutionary relationships?
CHAPTER 11 QUESTIONS
24. What are the two sources of genetic
variation in a population?
25. All of the alleles of a population of species
26. How common an allele is in #25
27. Change in the genetic material of a cell
28. If natural selection is favoring certain alleles
over others, what happens to the allele
frequencies in the gene pool?
29. Observable change in allele frequencies over
time
FITNESS
Fossils
Older
Biogeography
Similar features in early stages of
development show evidence of a
common ancestor
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
A COMMON ANCESTOR
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
COMMON ANCESTOR
THE MORE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE
SEQUENCES OF THE MOLECULES MEANS
THE MORE CLOSELY RELATED THE
SPECIES ARE (SHARE A MORE RECENT
COMMON ANCESTOR)
MUTATIONS
RECOMBINATION
GENE POOL
Allele frequency
MUTATION
THEY CHANGE (favorable will increase,
the unfavorable will decrease)
microevolution
30. You are looking for a graph that illustrates a
normal distribution – what does it look like?
A bell curve
31. What kind of selection results when those
at either end of bell curve have better
fitness than those in middle? Draw a picture
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
32. What kind of selection results when those at
center of curve are better fit for their
environment? Draw a picture
STABILIZING SELECTION
33. What kind of selection results when those at
one end of curve have higher fitness than
those at other end? Draw a picture
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
34. Genes moving between populations
35. When an individual moves out of a
population
36. When an individual moves into a population
37. Which of #35 or #36 is better for variation in
a gene pool? Why?
38. The phenomenon that occurs when an allele
becomes more or less common b/c of
chance
39. What kinds of populations are affected more
by genetic drift?
Gene flow
emigration
immigration
Immigration b/c it can bring new
variations into the population
GENETIC DRIFT
SMALL ONES
40. What reduction of population size occurs
when a few individuals colonize a new area?
41. What is the term given to a reduction in
population size due to some event (fire,
flood, overhunting) that kills off large
numbers of the population
42. How is the resulting population created by
both #40 & #42 different from the original
population
43. What type of selection occurs as a result of
certain traits increase mating success?
44. What are 5 factors that can lead to
evolution?
45. The rise of two or more new species from
one original species
46. In order for speciation to occur, this must
happen between two populations
47. Separation of a population by a river
48. The elimination of a species from Earth
49. Process by which descendants of a single
ancestor diversify into different species that
each fit different parts of the environment.
50. Similarities that arise between organisms
who have different ancestors are examples
of this type of evolution.
51. Over millions of years, pollinators have
changed in response to changes in the plants
they pollinate. This is an example of what?
52. Pattern of speciation that occurs at a
predictable, regular rate
FOUNDER EFFECT
Bottleneck effect
Both involve a reduction in the variety of
the genes in the gene pool
Sexual selection
Natural selection
Mutation
Gene flow
Genetic drift
Sexual selection
speciation
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
extinction
DIVERGENT EVOLUTION or ADAPTIVE
RADIATION
CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
COEVOLUTION
gradualism