Download Evolution PowerPoint Lecture Notes

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Organisms at high altitude wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

Genetic drift wikipedia, lookup

Introduction to evolution wikipedia, lookup

Theistic evolution wikipedia, lookup

Catholic Church and evolution wikipedia, lookup

Genetics and the Origin of Species wikipedia, lookup

Hologenome theory of evolution wikipedia, lookup

Unilineal evolution wikipedia, lookup

Natural selection wikipedia, lookup

The Selfish Gene wikipedia, lookup

State switching wikipedia, lookup

Inclusive fitness wikipedia, lookup

Speciation wikipedia, lookup

Evidence of common descent wikipedia, lookup

Punctuated equilibrium wikipedia, lookup

Sexual selection wikipedia, lookup

Sociobiology wikipedia, lookup

Ecology wikipedia, lookup

Vestigiality wikipedia, lookup

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 15 and 16
Evolution Change through time
Theory of Evolution of Life
• Charles Darwin -A Naturalist who, in 1831,
traveled on the “HMS Beagle” for a five
year expedition to discover, collect, study,
and store biological specimens.
• Father of the Theory of Evolution
The Galapagos Islands
• Darwin observed many
islands with great
biodiversity.
• Animals and plants
seemed to be best suited
for their own particular
climate.
• The organisms on the
islands were similar to
those on the main island
but seemed to have
adapted to the island
climate.
• After 22 years of data
analysis he formed his
Theory of Adaptation and
Natural Selection.
Adaptation
Adaptation: an
anatomical,
physiological, or
behavioral trait that
improves an
organism’s ability to
survive and
reproduce.
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
• 1. Organisms produce
more offspring than
can survive.
• 2. Variations exist
within populations
• 3. Some variations
are more
advantageous than
others (struggle for
existence)
• 4. The “fittest”
survive and
reproduce! Thus the
species modifies itself
over time. (Natural
Selection)
Darwin’s Pigeons
• Artificial Selection - By
breeding pigeons that had a
desirable trait, the offspring
would carry these same
traits.
• Natural Selection - Nature
selects or chooses which
traits in an organism will be
passed on to future
generations.
Adaptations
• Populations adapt as the environment changes
1) Mimicry - Structural adaptation that provides
protection by enabling it to copy another species.
(Monarch and Viceroy)
Adaptations
2) Camouflage - Structural adaptation that enables
the organism to blend in with its environment.
(Peppered Moths)
3) Physiological Adaptations - Bacteria
developing a resistance to penicillin.
Five Points of Evidence for
Evolution
1. Fossil Record - Identifies a path a species
followed as it evolved.
Five Points of Evidence for Evolution
2.Anatomical Studies A) Homologous structures Similar in structure, but,
different in function.
B) Analogous structures
Body part similar in
function but different in
structure.
Ex. Wings of bird
and butterfly
3. Vestigial Organs - Structures
that have no function in the
organism today but may have
been used. Ex. Appendix
4. Embryological development Organisms that develop similarly
as embryos have an evolutionary
relationship. (Vertebrate
embryos- all have tails and gill
slits as they develop)
5. Genetic Similarities - DNA and
RNA sequences are similar in
related organisms.
Vestigial Features
Similarities in Embryology
Mechanisms of Evolution
• Occurs when there is a change in the genetic
makeup of a population.
• Occurs in population over many generations.
• Gene pool - All the genes in a population
• Allele frequency - Proportion of each allele in a
gene pool (SS,Ss, Ss, ss - 3:1 Spotted to black)
3 Ways Genetic Equilibrium Can
Change
• Genetic equilibrium - Allele frequencies do not
change over time (non evolving)
• Ways equilibrium change
1) Mutations – Natural or by chance, genetic
changes in gene pool; most harmful, some
beneficial and are added to gene pool.
2) Genetic Drift - Changes due to chance events
(Small populations) Ex. Amish; short arms/legs
3) Gene flow - Movement of genes into or out of a
population; causes the gain or loss of genetic info.
3 Types of Natural Selection
• Most significant factor in gene pool changes
• 1. Stabilizing Selection - Favors the average
individuals in a population. (Grass, Spiders)
Types of Natural Selection
• 2. Directional Selection- Favors one
extreme of a trait (woodpeckers with long
beaks)
Types of Natural Selection
• 3.Disruptive Selection - Individuals with
either of two extreme traits are favored.
(light, dark, and medium colored limpets)
Speciation
• Formation of a new species from
an ancestral form.
• This can only occur when interbreeding or the production of fertile
offspring is somehow prevented.
• Physical barriers - New mountain
ranges, canyons, or water barriers
create Geographical Isolation.
• Reproductive Isolation -Occurs
when mutations prevent offspring
development, or seasonal mating
changes that prevent mating.
Speciation
• Speciation can occur quickly or slowly.
• Gradualism- Species originate through
a gradual accumulation of adaptations.
• Punctuated Equilibrium - Occurs in
rapid bursts with long periods of
stability in between.
• Adaptive Radiation - An ancestral
species evolves into many different
species (Divergent Evolution)
• Convergent Evolution -Distantly
related organisms evolve similar
traits. Ex. Whales and Fish
Comparing Convergent and
Divergent Evolution
Divergent Evolution:
A process in which the
descendants of a single
ancestor diversifies into
species that each fit
different parts of the
environment.