Download Teacher Resource 2

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Climate-friendly gardening wikipedia, lookup

Climate resilience wikipedia, lookup

Heaven and Earth (book) wikipedia, lookup

ExxonMobil climate change controversy wikipedia, lookup

Climatic Research Unit documents wikipedia, lookup

Climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

German Climate Action Plan 2050 wikipedia, lookup

Climate change denial wikipedia, lookup

Global warming hiatus wikipedia, lookup

Global warming controversy wikipedia, lookup

Economics of climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Tuvalu wikipedia, lookup

2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference wikipedia, lookup

Instrumental temperature record wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbon economy wikipedia, lookup

Fred Singer wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Climate sensitivity wikipedia, lookup

Climate change adaptation wikipedia, lookup

General circulation model wikipedia, lookup

Mitigation of global warming in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Views on the Kyoto Protocol wikipedia, lookup

Physical impacts of climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Economics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Media coverage of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate engineering wikipedia, lookup

Climate governance wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Canada wikipedia, lookup

Global warming wikipedia, lookup

Attribution of recent climate change wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on humans wikipedia, lookup

Scientific opinion on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in the United States wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

Climate change, industry and society wikipedia, lookup

Surveys of scientists' views on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme wikipedia, lookup

Business action on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Teacher Resource 2
Task 2: Glossary of Key Terms: Answers
Adaptation
It involves taking practical actions to manage risks from climate impacts,
protect communities and strengthen the resilience of the economy.
Adaptation refers to dealing with the impacts of climate change.
Albedo
Refers to the ratio of light from the sun that is reflected by the Earth’s
surface to the light received by it. Surfaces with a high albedo (e.g. snow
and ice) generally contribute to cooling, whereas surfaces with a low albedo
(e.g. forests) generally contribute to warming.
Anthropogenic
climate change
Refers to the production of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity
that have contributed to contemporary climate change.
Axial Tilt
The angle between a planet's rotational axis at its north pole and a line
perpendicular to the orbital plane of the planet.
Carbon Capture
and Storage
The process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point
sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site,
and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an
underground geological store.
Carbon Cycle
A biogeochemical cycle where carbon is cycled between the atmosphere,
biosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere.
Carbon Neutral
A process where there is no net release of CO2. For example, growing
biomass takes CO2 out of the atmosphere, while burning it releases the gas
again. The process would be carbon neutral if the amount taken out and the
amount released were identical. A company or country can also achieve
carbon neutrality by means of carbon offsetting.
Carbon Sinks
Processes that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they
release. Both the terrestrial biosphere and oceans can act as carbon sinks.
Climate
The long-term average weather of a region including typical weather
patterns, the frequency and intensity of storms, cold spells, and heat waves.
Climate is not the same as weather.
Climate Modelling
Is the process of using systems of mathematical equations that when
brought together allow simulations or predictions of future climate change to
be made.
Version 1
Climate Change
1
© OCR 2017
Climate Proxies
Evidence such as ice cores, pollen data and tree rings that provide
evidence for past climates.
Conference of the
Parties (COP)
The supreme decision-making body comprised of the parties that have
ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It meets on an
annual basis. As of February 2003, it is comprised of 188 countries. E.g.
Paris COP-21
Eccentricity
The degree to which the Earth’s orbit is circular.
Emissions Trading
A market mechanism that allows emitters (countries, companies or facilities)
to buy emissions from or sell emissions to other emitters. Emissions trading
is expected to bring down the costs of meeting emission targets by allowing
those who can achieve reductions less expensively to sell excess
reductions (e.g. reductions in excess of those required under some
regulation) to those for whom achieving reductions is more costly.
Geoengineering
The deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth's natural systems to
counteract climate change e.g. cloud whitening.
Global Warming
The progressive gradual rise of the Earth's average surface temperature
thought to be caused in part by increased concentrations of GHGs in the
atmosphere.
Ice Cores
Tubes of ice extracted in order to analyse a range of isotopic data, providing
a proxy for past climates.
Interglacial
A geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting
thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice
age.
Intergovernmental
Panel for Climate
Change (IPCC)
The IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological
Organization and the UN Environment Programme. The IPCC is
responsible for providing the scientific and technical foundation for the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)
primarily through the publication of periodic assessment reports (see
"Second Assessment Report" and "Third Assessment Report").
Kyoto Protocol
An international agreement adopted in December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.
The Protocol sets binding emission targets for developed countries that
would reduce their emissions on average 5.2% below 1990 levels.
Mauna Loa Record
The record of measurement of atmospheric CO2 concentrations taken at
Mauna Loa Observatory, Mauna Loa, Hawaii, since March 1958. This
record shows the continuing increase in average annual atmospheric CO2
concentrations.
Version 1
Climate Change
2
© OCR 2017
Milankovitch Cycle
Describes the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements upon
its climate e.g. eccentricity, axial tilt, precession.
Natural Forcing
Any influence on climate that originates from outside the climate system
itself e.g. changes to surface albedo.
Negative Feedback
A process that results in a reduction in the response of a system to an
external influence. For example, increased plant productivity in response to
global warming would be a negative feedback on warming, because the
additional growth would act as a sink CO2, reducing the atmospheric
CO2 concentration.
Positive Feedback
A process that results in an amplification of the response of a system to an
external influence. For example, increased atmospheric water vapour in
response to global warming would be a positive feedback on warming,
because water vapour is a GHG.
Precession
A change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Quaternary
The most recent period of geological time i.e. the last 2.6 million years to
the present.
Source
Any process or activity that results in the net release of greenhouse gases,
aerosols, or precursors of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Tipping Point
A tipping point is a threshold for change, which, when reached, results in a
process that is difficult to reverse. Scientists say it is urgent that policy
makers halve global carbon dioxide emissions over the next 50 years or risk
triggering changes that could be irreversible.
Uncertainty
Is a prominent feature of the benefits and costs of climate change. Decision
makers need to compare risk of premature or unnecessary actions with risk
of failing to take actions that subsequently prove to be warranted. This is
complicated by potential irreversibility in climate impacts and long term
investments.
OCR Resources: the small print
OCR’s resources are provided to support the teaching of OCR specifications, but in no way constitute an endorsed teaching method that is required by the Board, and the decision to
use them lies with the individual teacher. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the content, OCR cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions within these
resources.
© OCR 2017 - This resource may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the OCR logo and this message remain intact and OCR is acknowledged as the originator of this work.
Please get in touch if you want to discuss the accessibility of resources we offer to support delivery of our qualifications: [email protected]
Version 1
Climate Change
3
© OCR 2017