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Chapter 4: The psychology of Second Language Acquisition Saville-Troike, M. (2005). Introducing second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge UP. By Jasmine & Grace Date: October 9, 2010 Preview 1. Language and the brain 2. Learning process: SLA 3. Differences among learners Language and the brain Principal hemispheric specializations (p69) also see Brown (2007):p125 Left hemisphere Right hemisphere Phonology Nonverbal (as babies’ cries) Morphology Visuospatial information Syntax Intonation Function words and inflections Nonliteral meaning and ambiguity Tone systems Many pragmatic abilities Much lexical knowledge Some lexical knowledge Language and the brain 1. lateralization(側化現象) 2-puberty 2. Critical period hypothesis 3.Broca’s area/ Wernicke’s area- B&W 4. language activity /core linguistic processes 5. SLA-right hemisphere involvement L2-learnt by many means; use more memorization /L1-learnt by single means * Multilingual speakers Coordinate bilingualism Compound bilingualism Subordinate bilingualism Q1:When there is differential impairment or recovery in the brain, which language loses first and recovers first? Learning processes 1. Information processing (IP) (訊息處理) (1) Attention-processing (2) Skill Learning Theory (3)Restructuring 2. connectionism (聯結論) --PDP Information Processing(訊息處理) Cognitive psychologists language acquisition →storing, integrating, and retrieving information. do not think that humans have a language-specific module (i.e. LAD) in the brain. do not assume that ‘acquisition’ and ‘learning’ are distinct mental processes. L2 acquisition→ the building up of knowledge → automatically Stages of information Processing Input Central processing Output Perception Controlled-automatic processing Production Declarative –procedural knowledge Restructuring noticed input→pay attention to it →intake (frequency, perceptual saliency…p75) practice Fluency in speech and writing McLaughlin’s Attention-Processing Model 注意力處理模式(Brown. P299) Input: notice, pay attention→intake Brown (2007):p300, 302 - Controlled processes - Automatic processes McLaughlin’s Attention-Processing Model also see Brown (2007):p300,302 Attention controlled automatic Focal (intentional attention) Performance based on formal rule learning Performance in a test situation Peripheral Performance based on implicit learning or analogic learning Performance in communication situations From Brown (2007), p300 Anderson’s Skill Learning Theory Declarative knowledge Procedural knowledge Three stages: (1) information is stored. (drowned-drown+ed) (2) associative stage: (past tense…+ed) (3) autonomous stage Question 2: Anderson thinks that L2 learners do not reach full autonomy as L1 learners. What factors may influence the process of achieving autonomy in L2 acquisition? Restructuring L2 knowledge as continua of controlled- automatic and explicit-implicit 將訊息自動化需要重組的過程 from exemplar-based to rule-based Restructuring :because L is complex, hierarchical, not (necessarily) linearly Restructuring doesn’t necessarily happen all at once, but over time Restructuring U-shaped behavior is often evidenced during restructuring Stage 1 correct utterances feet Stage 3 feet foots Stage 2 incorrect utterances Three psychological approaches Multidimensional Model Processability Theory Competition Model Multidimensional model 2 principal axes: developmental & variational grammatical structures (organized hierarchically) Individual variation Focus on the relationship between implicit knowledge and output hierarchy: (1) Canonical order strategy (COS) (2) initialization /finalization strategy (IFS) (3) subordinate clause strategy (SCS) Processability Reorientation of Multidimensional model Hierarchy of processing skills (1) lemma/word access (ex:apple) (2) category procedure (ex: three apples) (3) phrasal procedure(ex: three big apples) (4) S-procedure (ex: There is an apple./ (5) Clause boundary There are three apples) Competition model Functional approach: L1 form-function mapping→SLA Competition among cues that signal functions Cue strength: task frequency/ contrastive availability/ conflict reliability Language process involves “competition” among the various cues Reminder to teachers that Ss do not only depend on L2 formal linguistic features as their only tools for deciphering the target language L2 –(Brown 2007, p.255) Competition model (form-function mapping) 1. horse -form: sounds [hors] -function: 4 legs/ hay eating animal 2. Horses eat hay. - Word order-form: horses + V + hay - Function: “horses” is S.; “hay” is O. - inflection- _s: form; function: more than one horse (p79) Connectionist approaches Focus on the increasing strength of associations between stimuli and responses (IP: focus on the inferred abstraction of “ rules” or restructuring.) Learning is change in the strength of these connections; learning is not dependent on UG or rule-formation. Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP): a network of nodes (units)→ repeated patterns of units (input)→ extract regularities→ probabilistic association (connection strengths/patterns of activation) Frequency influences learning IP PDP Attention is available for controlled processing vs. automatic processing Attention is distributed in local pattern Not serial in nature Processing is parallel pattern Knowledge is not stored in memory or retrieved as patterns Connection strengths /Patterns being recreated Question 3: Why are some L2 learners more successful than others? Differences in learners Age Sex Aptitude Motivation Cognitive style Personality Learning strategies (the last three are closely related to and interact with each other.) Difference in learners: age Children are more successful L2 learners? 1. initial rate learning (success) / older learners have an advantage (popular belief)/ learners who are introduced to the L2 in childhood (ultimate achievement) Critical period hypothesis(Lenneberg hypothesis):Genie Age difference in SLA Younger advantage Older advantage Brain plasticity Learning capacity Not analytical Analytic ability Fewer inhibitions(usually) Pragmatic skills Weaker group identity Greater knowledge of L1 Simplified input more likely Real-world knowledge Differences in learners: sex Female are better L2 learners? --verbal fluency --women’s brain may be less asymmetrically organized than men’s for speech (Kimura 1992). --women: better at memorizing complex forms/ men: better at computing compositional rules (Halpern 2000) --differences related to hormonal variables Differences in learners: aptitudes (1/2) • Phonemic coding ability: the capacity to process auditory input into segments which can be stored and retrieved. If the hearer cannot analyze the incoming stream of speech into phonemes in order to recognize morphemes, input may not result in intake. • Inductive language learning ability and grammatical sensitivity concerned with central processing. Differences in learners: aptitudes (2/2) • Associative memory capacity: how linguistic items are stored and with how they are recalled and used in output (speaker fluency). • Skehan (1998 )concludes that language learning aptitude “is not completely distinct from general cognitive abilities.” Differences in learners: motivation(1/2) • Significant goal or need/desire to attain the goal/ perception that learning L2 is relevant to fulfilling the goal or meeting the need/belief in the likely success or failure if learning L2/value of potential outcomes or rewards Differences in learners: motivation (2/2) • 2 type of motivation(Brown 2007, p175) • --integrative motivation: based on interest in learning L2; emotional or affective factors are dominant (learning by a member of the dominant group in a society) • --instrumental motivation: involves perception of purely practical value in learning L2 (learning by a subordinate group member) Differences in learners: cognitive style Refers to individual’s preferred way of processing: (perceiving, conceptualizing, organizing and recalling information.) Brown (2007):p120 Cognitive styles Field-dependent Field-independent Global - Particular Holistic - Analytic Deductive (top-down) - Inductive (bottom-up) Focus on meaning - Focus on form Differences in learners: personality Anxiety :most attention in SLA research. Low anxiety facilitates language learning. Instructional context or task influences anxiety and reporting. (oral performance) Systematic cultural differences are found between groups of learners. (face concept) Low anxiety and high self-confidence increase Ss motivation to learn. Personality traits Anxious - Self-confident Risk-avoiding - Risk-taking Shy - Adventuresome introverted - Extroverted Inner-directed - Other-directed Reflective - Impulsive Imaginative - Uninquisitive Creative - Uncreative Empathetic - Insensitive to others Tolerant of ambiguity - Closure-oriented Boldface print means positive correlation with success in L2 learning. Differences in learners: learning strategies (1/2) • Metacognitive : preview a concept/ decide specific aspects of input in advance/ rehearse linguistic components/ self-monitoring of progress and knowledge states • Cognitive: repeat or translate/ remember words by L1’s sounds/ create vivid images/ guess meanings through inferencing. Differences in learners: learning strategies (2/2) Social/affective: seek chances to interact with native speakers/ work cooperatively with peers/ ask Qs/ request repetition, explanation, or examples Good learners traits (Ellis 1994): Concern for language form (but also attention to meaning) Concern for communication Active task approach Awareness of the learning process Capacity to use strategies flexibly in accordance with task requirements Question 4: How do you feel about multilingualism so far? The effects of multilingualism (1/2) Positive effects: 1. foreign language study is good for “training the mind.” 2. an essential characteristic of “educated” and “cultured” members of society 3. on intellectual function based on “measures of conceptual development, creativity, metalinguistic awareness, semantic development, and analytic skills” (p93) The effects of multilingualism (2/2) Negative effects: 1. negative impact on general intelligence 2. capacity limitations for language acquisition and maintenance, that simultaneous bilingualism in childhood may result in a narrower range of lexical development in either language and that intensive and continued use of L2 many reduce accessibility of L1 Thank you for your attention!!