... • The acquisition-learning hypothesis (2)
1. Krashen argues that “acquisition” is a more
important process of constructing the system of
a language than “learning” because fluency in L2
performance is due to what we have acquired,
not what we have learned.
2. Learning cannot turn into acquisition. M ...
... develops from structures, processes, and “idea”which are
in the mind at birth (i.e. are innate), rather than from the
environment, and that these are responsible for the basic
structure of language and how it is learned.
This hypothesis has been used to explain how children are
able to learn langu ...
... • Can be different… the “a” in cat is a
different phoneme than the “a” in day
even though it is the same letter of the
• Phonemes are not just letters, “th” and
“sh” are phonemes too.
• Phonemes present the biggest
problem for people trying to learn a
Interlanguage - WordPress.com
... It was coined by the American linguist, Larry
L2 learners construct a linguistic system that
draws, in part, on the learner’s L1, but is also
different from it and target language.
THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE
... another person by imitating the animal's cries.
• Steven Pinker suggests in his book The Language
Instinct, "Perhaps a set of quasi-referential calls . . .
came under the voluntary control of the cerebral
cortex [which controls language], and came to be
produced in combination for complicated events ...
... which there is a major impairment of language comprehension, while speech retains a
natural-sounding rhythm and a relatively normal sentence structure.
• the second area is Broca's area, located in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the
• people with a lesion to this area d ...
PowerPoint Presentation - Language in Cognitive Science
... Use of Algorithms: essential to setting up
templates for language—are what enables
programmer to set up the restrictions,
Use of Models (an example)
Acoustic Model: Template design for
measuring the prosody of a given sample of
language (transition probabilities, output
editorial introduction - Psychology of Language and Communication
... attribution of speech to others by means of direct and indirect speech develops in parallel
with the emerging awareness of others’ minds and intentions. This is another example of
language use and cognition interrelations. The material analyzed in Nordqvist’s study comes
from 30 Swedish children bet ...
Trends and possibilities of language application in higher education
... our understanding of the world, but may remain unrecognised during the studies in higher
education, if English is regarded as the lingua franca of academic research. Thus the aim of
the paper is to study to which extent doctoral students regard language, and especially
Estonian language, important t ...
The psychology of second language acquisition
... process auditory input into segments which
can be stored and retrieved. If the hearer
cannot analyze the incoming stream of
speech into phonemes in order to recognize
morphemes, input may not result in intake.
• Inductive language learning ability and
grammatical sensitivity concerned with
central p ...
... and other language- related mechanisms are
Political Speeches: Exertion of Power through Linguistic Means
... Abstract. This paper examines two political speeches by Mr. Tony Blair and aims at demonstrating how a close
analysis of linguistic features in the texts can contribute to the comprehension of power relations and ideological
processes in discourse. To bring to light the exertion of power, the analys ...
Explicit knowledge can help learners in developing
implicit knowledge in a number of ways:
• Explicit knowledge can only convert into implicit
knowledge when learners are at the right stage
• Explicit knowledge can facilitate the process by
which learners deal with f ...
My Portfolio - CIIE-R10
... “Teachers… have to respond to the demands made by
testing regimes and students´ desire to pass tests. It is
therefore about evaluating the impact that test use may
have on teaching and learning, in the broadest sense.
The effects of the use of language tests are measure of
the meaning of the test in ...
Thinking and Language Chapter 10
... likelihood of things in terms of how well
they seem to represent, or match,
particular prototypes; may lead one to
ignore other relevant information.
Availability heuristic: estimating the
likelihood of events based on their
availability in our memory.
... Attempts to teach apes to use American Sign Language have failed, but researchers
have successfully taught chimpanzees to speak at a level of competence comparable
to that of a four-year-old human child.
April 26-28, 2017 Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
... science, neuroscience and the philosophy of the mind), and methodologies (e.g., experimental protocols, crosslinguistic comparison, synchronic and diachronic analyses, translation, corpus studies). Suggested topics include
(but are not restricted to) the impact of figuration on levels of linguistic ...
2 nd Language Learners
... 2nd Language Learners
• All 2nd language learners have already acquired one
• Some researchers believe that this is an advantage,
because with that 2nd language learners will already
have an idea on how languages work.
• Other researchers believe that having knowledge of
PSYC 2314 Chapter 6
... Combinations (18-24 months)
– By using mental combinations, toddlers begin to
anticipate and solve simple problems without resorting
to trail-and-error experimentation.
– Enables the toddler to remember much better, to
anticipate future events, and to pretend.
Critical period hypothesis
The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful.The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input doesn't occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of language—especially grammatical systems.The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development, but nonetheless is widely accepted. The nature of such a critical period, however, has been one of the most fiercely debated issues in psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general for decades. Some writers have suggested a ""sensitive"" or ""optimal"" period rather than a critical one; others dispute the causes (physical maturation, cognitive factors). The duration of the period also varies greatly in different accounts.In second-language acquisition, the strongest evidence for the critical period hypothesis is in the study of accent, where most older learners do not reach a native-like level. However, under certain conditions, native-like accent has been observed, suggesting that accent is affected by multiple factors, such as identity and motivation, rather than a critical period biological constraint (Moyer, 1999; Bongaerts et al., 1995; Young-Scholten, 2002).The assumption that there is a critical period is closely related to early immersion like a production.Template:Huh?