Brighter than Gold: Figurative Language in User
... are similes that cannot be rephrased as metaphors,
and the other way around (Israel et al., 2004). This
suggests that figurativeness in similes should be
modeled differently than in metaphors. To further
underline the necessity of a computational model
for similes, we give the first estimate of thei ...
The Importance of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition
... we are motivated to achieve "self-actualization". Bruner (1966, cited in chalak & Kassaian 2010)
claimed that one of the most effective ways to help students is to free them from the control of
rewards. In some cases, the two kinds of motivation may overlap to some degree because one may
be motivate ...
From Cultural Selection to Genetic Selection: A Framework for the
... with a few parameters for each linguistic rule or constraint, and choose the right one for the specific language they encounter. This conception faces some
difficulties, which as far as we are concerned, seem
pretty much insurmountable: (i) it cannot account
for the obvious fact that languages are d ...
Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Linguistic Diversity
... a program for future research on the topic by highlighting
methodological and theoretical considerations for explaining patterns of linguistic diversity. In particular, we draw
on previous empirical and theoretical work to outline the
mechanisms that drive linguistic cladogenesis and disparity.
We c ...
How language changed the genes: toward an explicit account of the
... Our point of departure is a theoretical reappraisal of Chomsky’s long-standing hypothesis of the autonomy of syntactic structures from meaning considerations. As we have already indicated, recent empirical research on the
interface between syntactic and semantic representations consistently
Learning Morphology by Itself1 - Mediterranean Morphology Meetings
... phonologically weak, often unstressed, word boundary positions. Moreover, they
convey fairly abstract and procedural semantic content (i.e. morpho-syntactic
properties), having very few if any perceptual correlates in the grounding environment
where words are uttered. Finally, when a language offers ...
Tailoring language provision and requirements
... in which they started to realise themselves as persons (personal identity), as members of a
family and social group (social identity), and in which they developed values important for
their lives (cultural/ religious identity). The more people have to leave behind, the more
important their first lan ...
Cognitive Development in Infancy
... As we first noted in Chapter 1, Piaget’s theory is based on a stage approach to development. He assumed that all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed
order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. He als ...
Cultural Aspects of Japanese Family Address Terms as Part of
... (3) Any successful second/foreign language acquisition must be understood as
acquisition of both target language forms and functions. (4) Acculturation is a
crucial part of the learning process itself, without which native-like use of the target
language would be impossible.
Japanese Family Address ...
Infant Lab Newsletter 2010_2
... we will be observing how infants match
auditory with visual information and whether
they follow the direction of gaze of a human
face. At the second visit, between 4 and 9
months, we will look at an infant’s ability to
distinguish his or her own name from other
names, as well as the ability to pay a ...
Jeff Elman In what ways does language aid human cognition and
... Processing language involves:
a. voluntarily controlling vocalizations
b. putting together words into an order as dictated by the language's grammar
c. retrieving the meaning of a word
d. B and C
e. A, B, and C"
True/False The brain areas that process language are only used for processing
... Attempts to teach apes to use American Sign Language have failed, but researchers
have successfully taught chimpanzees to speak at a level of competence comparable
to that of a four-year-old human child.
... Affective factors such as learners’ personalities
can influence the degree of anxiety they
experience and their readiness to take risks in
learning and using an L2.
At two months of age
... • Attainment of equal fluency is not typically
attained. When less fluency occurs in the
language in which the child is schooled,
problems may arise.
• Preschool and school-aged children:
advantage in metalinguistic ability
• Infants: language vocabulary divided between
two languages; lag in word kn ...
Thinking and Language Chapter 10
... that language determines the way we
- To say that language determines the way
we think is much too strong. But our words
INFLUENCE what we think. To expand
language is expanding the ability to think.
- Knowing more than one language
improves self esteem.
editorial introduction - Psychology of Language and Communication
... main questions the authors attempt to answer are: 1) how much of prior (innate) mechanisms do we need to assume before syntax can be learned? and 2) to what degree can
syntactic rules be learned on the basis of exposure to language?
The third article is a kind of exemplification of the interrelation ...
Chapter 6 outline
... during the sensorimotor stage of development suggest that infants show the
beginnings of problem-solving. Infants are capable of solving problems by combining
several subgoals to reach an interesting toy. Problem-solving can even stake on
complex qualities. In some circumstances, very young children ...
... gradual build-up of automaticity through practice.
– They seem rather to be based on the interaction of
knowledge we already have, or on the acquisition of
new knowledge (without extensive practice) which
fits into an existing system and causes it to be
restructured. This can lead to a positive or n ...
Structure of Words&Sentences
... – How many are at risk (under 20,000 speakers)?
• Nearly 4,000
– How many have fewer than 100 speakers?
• Nearly 500.
Statistical language acquisition
Statistical language acquisition, is a branch of developmental psycholinguistics, that studies the process by which humans develop the ability to perceive, produce, comprehend, and communicate with natural language in all of its aspects ( phonological, syntactic, lexical, morphological, semantic) through the use of general learning mechanisms operating on statistical patterns in the linguistic input. Statistical learning acquisition claims that infants language learning is based on pattern perception rather than an innate biological grammar. Several statistical elements such as frequency of words, frequent frames, phonotactic patterns and other regularities provide information on language structure and meaning for facilitation of language acquisition.