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Glottodidactics Lesson 8 Glottodidactics Lesson overview Chapters 8 & 9 of the textbook Glottodidactics Keywords: Individual differences, language aptitude, motivation, learning strategies Glottodidactics Individual differences in L2 acquisition There are individual differences in L2 acquisition. Affective factors such as learners’ personalities can influence the degree of anxiety they experience and their readiness to take risks in learning and using an L2. Glottodidactics Individual differences in L2 acquisition Language aptitude (Aptitude: Someone's aptitude for a particular kind of work or activity is their ability to learn it quickly and to do it well.) Some believe that language aptitude is partly related to general intelligence but also partially separate. Glottodidactics Individual differences in L2 acquisition John Carroll identified a number of components of language aptitude. These are: • Phonemic coding ability: The ability to identify the sounds of a foreign language. This ability is also related to the ability to handle sound symbol relationships. Glottodidactics • Grammatical sensitivity: The ability to recognize the grammatical functions of words in sentences. • Inductive language learning ability: The ability to identify patterns of correspondence and relations between form and meaning. Glottodidactics Individual differences in L2 acquisition • Rote learning ability: The ability to form and remember associations between stimuli. It is believed to improve in vocabulary learning. Glottodidactics Individual differences in L2 acquisition Motivation It involves the attitudes and affective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2. There are different types of motivation. Glottodidactics Motivation • Instrumental motivation: In some learning contexts, an instrumental motivation seems to be the major force determining success in L2 learning. • Integrative motivation: In other learning contexts, an integrative motivation does not seem to be so important. Glottodidactics • Resultative motivation: Some research suggest that motivation is the cause of L2 success. However, it is also possible that motivation is the result of learning. Specifically, learners who experience success in learning can become more or less motivated to learn. Glottodidactics • Intrinsic motivation: These four types of motivation should be considered as complementary and not different or oppositional. Glottodidactics Learning strategies Learning strategies are the particular approaches or techniques that learners use to try to learn. They can be behavioural or mental. There are different kinds of learning strategies. 1.Cognitive strategies: those strategies involved in the analysis, synthesis or transformation of learning materials. Glottodidactics An example of cognitive strategy is recombination. 2. Metacognitive strategies: are those involved in planning, monitoring, and evaluating learning. An example of metacognitive strategy is selective attention. Social or affective strategies concern the ways in which learners choose to interact with other speakers. An example of them is questioning for clarification.