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Chapter 10
Module 10.1
The Psychodynamic Perspective
Module 10.1 Preview Questions
 What
are the three levels of
consciousness in Freud’s theory of the
 What
are the structures of personality in
Freud’s theory?
 What
are psychological defense
Module 10.1 Preview Questions (Cont’d)
 What
are the five states of psychosexual
development in Freud’s theory?
 What
are some of the major contributions
of other psychodynamic theorists?
What Is Personality?
 The
relatively stable set of psychological
characteristics and behavior patterns that:
Make individuals unique
Account for the consistency of their action
over time
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
 Humans
must control their sexual and
aggressive instincts
Channel instincts in socially appropriate ways
 Theory
accounts for how mind balances
conflicting demands of instinct and social
Figure 10.1: Levels of
Consciousness in Freud’s Theory
Structure of Personality
 Id
Unconscious drives and instincts
Follows the pleasure principle
 Ego
Follows the reality principle
Balancing id’s demands with social approval
 Superego
Moral guardian, conscience
May impose self-punishment, guilt, shame
Defense Mechanisms
Used to prevent anxiety-evoking ideas or impulses
from entering conscious awareness
 Repression
 Denial
 Reaction formation
 Rationalization
 Projection
 Sublimation
 Regression
 Displacement
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
of Personality Development
 Personality
develops through five
psychosexual stages of development.
Characterized by how child seeks physical
pleasure from erogenous zones
Basic life functions viewed as being “sexual”
 Conflicts
emerge during each stage.
Can lead to the development of fixations
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
of Development
 Oral
Erogenous zone is the mouth
Too little/much gratification can lead to oral
 Anal
Stage: birth to 12–18 months old
Stage: ages 18–36 months
Erogenous zone is the anal cavity
Sexual pleasure through the ability to control
Conflict arises over issue of toilet training
Anal-retentive vs. anal-expulsive personality
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
of Development (Cont’d)
 Phallic
Stage: ages 3–6 years
Erogenous zone is the phallic region.
Core conflict is the Oedipus complex.
Freud’s followers called female version of
conflict the Electra complex.
Boys develop castration anxiety.
Girls experience penis envy.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
of Development (Cont’d)
 Latent
Stage: ages 6–12 years
Sexual impulses remain dormant.
 Genital
Stage: puberty to adulthood
Attraction to opposite gender
Sexual energies expressed through sexual
intercourse, marriage, child bearing
Other Psychodynamic
 The
theorists who followed in Freud’s
footsteps are called neo-Freudians
 Less emphasis on sex and aggression
 Greater emphasis on social relationships,
ego, concept of self
Carl Jung’s Analytical
 Also
believed in role of unconscious
conflicts on behavior
 Greater emphasis on present experiences
 Personal unconscious consists of
repressed memories and impulses
 Collective unconscious contains
archetypes (e.g., God, hero, mother)
Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology
 Emphasis
on the unique potential of each
 Conscious
experience plays important role
in personality
Role of the creative self
 Inferiority
complex and the drive for
Karen Horney:
An Early Voice in Feminist Psychology
 Criticized
Freud’s view of female
 Emphasized
role of social and cultural
 Importance
of parent-child relationships
Basic anxiety
Basic hostility
 Introduced
“womb envy”
Evaluating the
Psychodynamic Perspective
 Contributions
Detailed and comprehensive theory of
Awareness of unconscious drives, impulses
 Criticisms
To much importance on sexual and
aggressive drives
Too little emphasis on social relationships
Lack of evidence and questions of validity
Difficult to test scientifically
Module 10.2
The Trait Perspective
Module 10.2 Preview Questions
 What
are the three types of traits in
Allport’s trait model?
 What was Cattell’s view on the
organization of traits?
 What three traits are represented in
Eysenck’s model of personality?
 What is the “Big Five” trait model of
 What role do genes play in personality?
Trait Perspective
 Personality
consists of relatively enduring
personal characteristics called traits.
 Trait
theorists focus on:
How people differ in traits
How traits can be measured
How traits are organized
Gordon Allport: A Hierarchy of Traits
 Personality
traits are inherited but are
influenced by experience
 Hierarchy
of traits:
Cardinal traits
Central traits
Secondary traits
Hans Eysenck: A Simpler Trait Model
 Described
personality using three major
 Four
basic personality types
 Biological differences responsible for
individual variations in personality traits
Five Factor Model of
Personality: The “Big Five”
Genetic Basis of Traits
 Heredity
plays important role in shaping
 Focus
is on understanding the interactions
of biology and environment
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
 Contributions:
Has intuitive appeal
Led to the development of personality tests
 Drawbacks:
Circular reasoning – labels rather than
explains behavior
Behavior may not be as stable across time
and situations as assumed by trait theorists
 Emerging
view is that behavior involves an
interaction between traits and situational
Module 10.3
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
Module 10.3 Preview Questions
 What
are expectancies and subjective
 What
is reciprocal determinism?
 What
are situation and person variables?
Traditional Behavioral View
 Personality
is shaped by environmental
Personality consists of the sum total of an
individual’s learned behavior
 Behavior
is learned on the basis of
classical and operant conditioning
Social-Cognitive Theory
 To
explain behavior, must take into
Cognitive aspects of behavior, such as
expectancies about outcomes of behavior
Social aspects of behavior, such as imitation
 Personality
comprises both:
Learned behavior
The ways we think about ourselves and our
Julian Rotter: The Locus of
 Explaining,
predicting behavior depends
on knowing individual’s:
Reinforcement history
Subjective values
 People
acquire general expectancies
about ability to obtain reinforcements.
External vs. internal locus of control
Albert Bandura
 Model
of reciprocal determinism
 Emphasized
role of observational learning
 Distinguished
between two types of
Outcome expectations
Efficacy expectations
Walter Mischel
 Behavior
is influenced by:
Situational variables
Person variables
Subjective values
Encoding strategies
Self-regulatory systems and plans
 Possible
interaction between emotions
and personal variables
Evaluating the
Social-Cognitive Perspective
 Improved understanding of how behavior is
influenced by environmental factors
 Broadened learning theory to include cognitive
 View of people as active seekers and interpreters
of information
 Limited view of personality
 Fails to account for unconscious influences, heredity
 Too little focus on subjective experience
Module 10.4
The Humanistic Perspective
Module 10.4 Preview Questions
 What
 How
is self theory?
do collectivistic and individualistic
cultures view the concept of self?
Carl Rogers: The Importance of
 We
possess an inner drive to strive toward
 Personality
expressed through the
conscious experience of directing self
toward fulfilling one’s unique potential
Carl Rogers’s Self Theory
 Self
as center of the human experience
 One
primary function of the self is the
development of self-esteem
Unconditional vs. conditional positive regard
Self-esteem results from how close one
comes to meeting one’s self-ideals
 Developed
client-centered therapy
Abraham Maslow
 The
innate drive toward self-actualization
shapes personality
Drive motivates us to develop our unique
potentials as human beings
 Humanists
view personality as a
continuing process of personal growth and
Important to be aware of and accept all parts
of one self
Culture and Self-Identity
 Collectivistic
Cultures: emphasis on
people’s social roles and obligations
Values group goals over individual goals
 Individualistic
Cultures: emphasis on
individual identity and personal
Values independence and self-sufficiency
Evaluating the
Humanistic Perspective
 Contributions:
Profound impact on society
Focused attention on need to understand
subjective or conscious experience of
Method of client-centered therapy remains
highly influential
Helped restore concept of self to psychology
Evaluating the
Humanistic Perspective (Cont’d)
 Criticisms:
Difficult to scientifically study conscious
Possible negative consequences from
emphasis on self-fulfillment (e.g., self
indulgent and self absorbed)
Does drive for self-actualization really exist?
Module 10.5
Personality Tests
Module 10.5 Preview Questions
 What
are self-report personality
 What
are projective tests of personality?
Measuring Personality
 Historical
Examination of facial features
 Modern
Self-report personality inventories
Projective tests
Self-Report Personality
 Objective
Can be scored objectively
Construction based on research
 Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI):
Constructed to help diagnose mental
Raw scores converted into standard scores
Evaluation of
Self-Report Personality Tests
 Strengths:
Relatively inexpensive to administer and
People may be more willing to disclose
personal information
May be used to predict wide range of
 Weakness:
Susceptible to potential response biases
Projective Tests
 Person
is presented with unstructured or
ambiguous stimuli
Assumption that people “project” needs,
drives, motives through their responses
 Examiner
must interpret person’s
Evaluation of Projective Tests
 Drawbacks:
Scoring of responses based on subjective
Problem of stimulus pull
Questions about overall validity and utility
 Proponents
argue they can yield valuable
information about personality
Application: Module 10.6
Building Self-Esteem
Building Self-Esteem
 Acquire
 Set realistic, achievable goals
 Enhance self-efficacy expectations
 Create a sense of meaningfulness in your
 Challenge perfectionist expectations
 Challenge the need for constant approval