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Transcript
Cell Unit (Structures) Test - Study Guide
1. Important discoveries/scientists leading to the cell theory
a. 1665: Robert Hooke - discovers cells after observing a thin piece of cork
under a microscope
b. 1838: Matthias Schleiden – discovers that all plant tissue is made up of
cells
c. 1839: Theodor Schwann – shows that all animal tissue is made up of cells
d. 1858: Rudolf Virchow determines that all cells come from existing cells
2. Cell Theory –
a. All organisms are made of one or more cells
b. Cells are the basic building block of living things
c. Cell are made from other cells
3. Levels of organization…
Cells => tissue => organs => organ systems => organisms
4. Procedure or making a wet mount slide
Add 1-2 drops of water then lower the slip cover at a 45◦ angle (to avoid air
bubbles)
5. Cell organelles and their functions
a. Mitochondria – site of cellular respiration, where glucose is converted to
energy (ATP)
b. Chloroplasts (contain chlorophyll) – site of photosynthesis, where the sun’s
energy is converted to glucose and oxygen
c. Nucleus – control center in eukaryotic cells, contains DNA and controls
most cell processes including growth, reproduction and metabolism.
i. Nuclear membrane – membrane surrounding the nucleus
ii. Nucleolus – (in the nucleus) produces ribosomes
iii. Chromosomes – rod-like compressed form of DNA (in the nucleus)
stores genetic info, passes traits to new cells
d. Ribosomes – small grain-like organelles in which amino acids are hooked
together to make proteins
e. Cytoplasm –clear, jelly-like solution (mostly water) that allows organelles
to move around within cell
f. Cell membrane – allows materials to pass in & out of cell
g. Cell wall – surrounds the cell membrane of plant cells (only) to provide
structure to plant cells. Cell walls are NOT found in animal cells
h. Endoplasmic reticulum – organelles that transports material throughout the
cell
i. Lysosome – the organelle that digests food particles, waste, cell parts, and
foreign invaders contains digestive enzymes (waste disposal)
j. Golgi complex – the organelle that processes and transports proteins and
other materials out of the cell
k. Vacuole – stores water and other materials in the cell
Other organelle notes:
a) Two organelles found in plant cells but not in animal cells include chloroplasts
& cell walls
b) Cells that require more energy, such as muscle cells, will have more
mitochondria because this organelle is the site of cellular respiration where
ATP (energy) is created
c) A human body cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total)
6. DNA -
deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule that is present in all living things
and that contains information that determines the traits that all living
things inherit and needs to live
7. Organisms need food (energy) to survive:
a) Producer – an organism that can make its own food by using energy from
its surroundings (mostly the sun’s energy)
b) Consumer – an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
c) Decomposer – an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains
of dead organisms or animal waste and consuming or absorbing the
nutrients
d) Herbivore – an organism that eats only plants
e) Carnivore – an organism that eats animals
f) Omnivore – an organism that eats both plants and animals
8. The function of channel protein in cell membranes is to allow certain substances
to enter and leave the cell
9. Metabolism - the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
10. Multicellular - organism composed of many cells that are specialized to do certain
tasks
11. Single-celled or unicellular – organisms that consist of only one cell
12. Homeostasis - an organism’s ability to maintain a stable internal condition (i.e.
humans maintain a body temp of about 98.6°F)
13. The four necessities of all living things include:
i.
Food
ii. Water
iii. Air
iv.
Shelter (a place to live)
14. Characteristics of all living things include:
i.
Living things have one or more cells
ii. Living things have DNA
iii. Living things sense & respond to stimuli
iv.
Living things grow & develop
v.
Living things reproduce
vi.
Living things use energy (metabolize)
15. Asexual reproduction - one parent
18. Sexual Reproduction - two parents
Also review unit one - Experimental Design components…
i. Identify independent and dependent variables so that you can create…
ii. Experimental Design Diagrams w/ Titles and Hypotheses
iii. IV Levels
iv.
Determine number of experimental trials
v. Recognize constants and controls (if applicable)